CIP School in the Phils.

Demonstrates turn-taking in conversations and group discussions in English.

on May 26, 2013


Non-English Proficient

Teacher Modeled Instruction

Demonstrates turn-taking in conversations and group discussions in English.

_ Model classroom procedure and have students demonstrate comprehension of rules and procedures

_ Provide opportunities for students to discuss current events by bringing in newspaper articles, video clips, or items of interest

_ Use “Talking Chips”

_ Model appropriate body language

_ Have students take turns in group discussion and conversations


Limited English Proficient

Teacher Guided Instruction

Demonstrates turn-taking and eye contact in conversations and group discussions in English.

_ Explain cultural differences in nonverbal behavior and eye contact in English

_ Use daily sharing, cooperative groups and class discussions

_ Provide group discussion time after presentations or field trips (refer to specific events)



Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

Speaks and listens attentively in conversations and group discussions, comparing points of view other than one’s own in English.

_ Provide opportunities for discussions in small groups with general topics for students to formulate thoughtful questions

_ Provide experience in small groups with teacher modeling


Non-English Proficient

Teacher Modeled Instruction

Asks and answers questions to gather and provide information in English.

_ Model good questioning techniques and attentive listening

_ Practice using complete sentences in asking and answering questions

_ Use interactive writing

_ Model interview questions and answers for “Student of the


_ Use Memory Bag*

_ Play 20 questions


Limited English Proficient

Teacher Guided Instruction

Asks and answers questions to gather and provide information in English.

_ Provide opportunities for students to ask Who? What? When?

Where? Why? And How? Questions

_ Use K-W-L and other graphic organizers

_ Teacher models school procedure questions and responses

EX: When can you use the bathroom?

What day do we go to music?

How do we go to the library?


Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

Asks pertinent questions; responds to questions with relevant details in English.

_ Ask a variety of questions and answers

_ Share reactions to literature read aloud

_ Paraphrase information shared



Non-English Proficient

Teacher Modeled Instruction

Shares ideas and information in small groups in English.

_ Practice attentive listening

_ Do “Think, Pair, Shares.”*

_ Maintain eye contact

_ Have students share responses in guided reading groups


Limited English Proficient

Teacher Guided Instruction

 Presents ideas and information in groups in English.

_ Formulate thoughtful questions after listening activities

_ Use the following strategies:

• Webbing

• Brainstorming

• Clustering

• Mapping

• Cooperative groups

• Individual class projects

• Use cooperative group roles

• Maintain eye contact



Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

Shares ideas and information to complete a task in English.

_ Use brainstorming and negotiation skills


Fully English Proficient

Independent with Teacher as Monitor

Distinguishes between a speaker’s opinion and verifiable fact.

_ Examine propaganda (TV


_ Write advertisements

_ Use the book – I Want a Pet as a model to write persuasive letters to a parent asking for a pet. The letter must contain two facts and two opinions

_ Graph opinions: favorite food, color, TV show, etc.

_ Have students survey classmates to gather facts such as number of siblings, eye color, etc.


Author Study

An author study involves reading and discussing good literature and how it can be used in the writing process.

Guiding Questions:

1) What are some ways that authors might get ideas for the themes, characters, settings, in their books?

2) How do you come up with ideas for writing a story?

3) If the author could come to visit, what would the students ask?

Anticipatory Guide

To introduce a new chapter in an expository text an Anticipatory Guide is a good tool to assess students’ prior knowledge of the topic to be introduced. This can be in the format of a true-false text or using a scale of 1-5 that requires students to rate statements on a scale of disagreeing strongly to agreeing strongly.

Book Looks

To create an interest in a particular subject, a teacher would gather books from the library that pertains to that subject area. On the first day of the lesson, these books would be at various tables to students to peruse and study. The pictures and text in the books would establish background

knowledge for the upcoming lesson.


Book Walk

To introduce a new book to students in a Guided Reading group, the teacher “walks” the students through the book pointing out key ideas and concepts. The teacher draws upon the students’ prior knowledge and experiences. The teacher may also introduce new vocabulary that may be challenging for the students.

Textbook Organization Worksheet

The following worksheet may be used to evaluate the organization of a particular textbook.

Clarification of the book’s organization helps students to distinguish purposes and main ideas and to comprehend the information while reading (REFERENCE).



(Name of book)


How are the chapters arranged?

_____ Sequentially

_____ Chronologically

_____ Topically

_____ Other _____________________


Write a one-sentence summary of each chapter and/or unit.


What study aids are found in the book? In each chapter?

In the Book

_____ Glossary

_____ Bibliography

_____ Appendices

_____ Other _______________

In the Chapters

_____ lists of objectives


_____ Introductions

_____ Headings

_____ Subheadings

_____ Summaries

_____ suggested readings

_____ Review questions

_____ Discussion questions

_____ Vocabulary lists

_____ Bold or italics vocabulary

_____ Tables

_____ Graphs or charts

_____ Photographs

_____ Figures

_____ Other _______________


What function(s) do the visual aids serve?

_____ create interest in the subject

_____ summarize information

_____ illustrate key ideas

_____ Present new information

_____ Other _______________


Which supplemental materials are available for the book?

_____ Student workbook

_____ Instructor’s manual

_____ Lab manual

_____ Audio cassettes

_____ Slides

_____ Movies

_____ Other _______________


Chapter Books

Books that offer easy to read segments that have a title and specific focus.

Chapter Tours

A guided reading and thinking activity in which the teacher “sets” (uses, explains, pronounces)

Vocabulary from the chapter and discusses the contents of the chapter before the student reads it. This chapter tour prepares students for what they will encounter in their own reading. It helps the students to construct meaning from print and become more efficient readers.

Character Study

This strategy allows students to develop the specific characteristics of a character in a story or novel. A graphic organizer outlining the traits of the character is helpful to guide the students to include pertinent information. Comparisons of character in the same book or a previously reviewed book/story are also helpful with this strategy.

Choral Reading

This is a technique that may be used as a small group or whole group and works best with poetry and refrains. It can be varied by alternating boys and girls or by rows or tables. Children enjoy choral reading and it does give them fluency practice.



A short five-line poetic form that expresses a brief thought or statement. The first line has two

(2) Syllables, the second line has four (4) syllables, the third line has six (6) syllables, the fourth

line has eight (8) syllables, and the final line has two (2) syllables.


Cinquain guidelines:

-Write about a noun: poems should be about something concrete

-Don’t try to make each line express a complete thought

-Each line should flow into the next

-Focus on using nouns and verbs

-The poem should build toward a climax with the last line serving as some sort of conclusion




Working, thinking

Getting ready for tests

Trying so hard to get good grades


Basketball Fun

Game time

Shooting, scoring

Twenty more seconds left

Catch the ball, run fast and slam-dunk


CLOZE Activity

An activity in which children supply a single missing word in the middle or end of a sentence.

Usually the omitted word can be predicted by the recurring rhyming pattern and/or by supplying the initial consonant sound. Examples: The cat sat on the _____. (Mat) The cat sat on the

m____. (Mat)

Coined Phrases

Common words or phrases that have been appropriated as private property. These words are often given trademark status and registered with the government. Examples include the following:

Kleenex tissues, Xerox copiers, Coca Cola soft drinks (COKE)



A shape poem in the form of a diamond. The diamonte is easy to write. The purpose is to go from the subject at the top of the diamond to another totally different (and sometimes opposite) subject at the bottom.

Line 1: One noun (subject #1)

Line 2: Two Adjectives (describing subject #1)

Line 3: Three -ing words (participles telling about subject #1)

Line 4: Four nouns about the subject (first two related to subject #1; second two related to

subject #2)

Line 5: Three -ing words (participles telling about subject #2)

Line 6: Two adjectives (describing subject #2)

Line 7: One noun (subject #2 – antonym for subject #1)


Hot, busy

Running, shopping, playing

Sport, sun, snowmen, school

Freezing snowing, sleeping

Cold, boring



Pain, violence

Hating, suffering, fighting

Death, departure, friendship, merry

Loving, caring, sharing

Calm, happy



DEAR (Drop Everything and Read)

A regularly scheduled uninterrupted reading time for both students and teachers. D.E.A.R.

supplements the regular reading program by encouraging independent reading and accommodating

a variety of student interests and ability levels.

DRTA (Directed Reading Thinking Activity)

Directed Reading Thinking Activity – This strategy is used to help students determine the reason/ purpose for reading, use prediction when reading text and make decisions based on their readings.

1. The teacher directs students to read the title, use picture clues or past experience and brainstorm.

2. After reading, the students are asked if their predictions were confirmed, rejected, or modified.

3. This strategy encourages students to think about their reading and verbally express these thoughts.

4. Make sure that students understand that a good response is based on using the evidence from the reading passage, not whether they are “right” or “wrong.”

Five W/’s

Who?, (did) What?, When?, Where?, Why? and How? are the key terms for questioning strategies to find out information.

1. Who is the story about?

2. What happened in the story?

3. Where did it take place?

4. When did it take place?

5. Why is this important?

6. How did it happen?




Found Poems

Students find a sentence they like in different sources, such as a magazine, novel, history book,

newspaper, etc. They only use one sentence from each source, cut it out or write it, and then

put the sentences together to make a poem.

Four Corners Activity

The teacher picks a topic, i.e. shoes, and has students go to one designated corner of the room.

For example, students who best see themselves as a high heeled shoe go to this corner, those

that are a hiking boot go to that other corner, those that are a sandal go to this corner and those

that are a sneaker go to this other corner. The four groups each discuss why they feel that shoe

best describes them and then one from each group reports to the whole class about their findings.

This activity is best used with controversial subjects or ones of particular interest for students.


Structure is provided to the student for their use in writing: sentence frames, paragraph frames, story frames, poetry frames, comic strip frames, etc. Frames provide a structure to help students see the relationships between words and ideas. They are used as an aid for retelling and as a planning tool for writing. Story frames can be developed in several formats such as preprinted worksheets, stair steps, or pictorial representations.

Frame Examples:

A Fairy Tale Frame as a way for students to remember the key information.

• The problem in the story was……

• It started when……

• After that…….

• Then…….

• The problem is solved when……

• The story ends……….


Free Voluntary Reading (FVR)

The is reading where students are free to choose the materials they want to read. And it is

voluntary reading; students choose to or not to report in class on the reading they have done.

This is Sustained Silent Reading in its purest form. No requirements, no book reports, no

journal entries, no chapter questions, no required home reading. It is a chance for students to

read with no strings attached.


Function Chart (Parts of Speech)

This is a sentence patterning structure to teach sentence formation, sentence expansion, subject/ predicate; subject/verb agreement, verb tense, singular/plural; and descriptive writing. Students generate vocabulary in a brainstorming session under each of the identified columns. Each column is color-coded to help students remember the part of speech being used. The function of the chart is modeled by the teacher to create sentences and paragraphs.

Adjectives Nouns Verbs Adverbs Prepositional Phrases

Hungry peasants traveled quickly down the road

Weary workers worked hard in the fields

Tired farmers rested calmly at night


A category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a style, form, or content.

Graphic Organizers

Visual images used to organize information. (See appendix for examples)

Guided Reading

Guided Reading is a reading instructional approach that is supported by the teacher and helps

children to develop as independent readers. It involves a group of no more than six students with similar reading abilities. The purpose of guided reading is to help children develop strategies as they read. It involves ongoing observation and assessment on the part of the teacher.

Book selection and the focus for each lesson are based on the teacher’s careful observation of student’s use of strategies.

Example: The sample lesson uses “The Little Red Hen.” By the end of this lesson, children will be able to relate some aspect of the story to their own lives, discuss ways in which family members help each other, predict, eliminate, scan, check, and confirm text when reading silently and read to locate specific information in the text.

Begin with a discussion about how family members and friends help each other. Then give a copy of the book to each child and say, “This is a book about a little red hen who wants to make bread






Guided Reading (cont.) and needs her friends to help.” Ask the children to tell you about the pictures in the book. This is called a “Picture Walk.” The teacher plants the necessary concepts and language she thinks her students will need to read this book. For second language learners, the teacher may want to make bread before reading the book to provide the necessary background knowledge and vocabulary comprehension. After the picture walk and any activities to scaffold the language of the book, the students are asked to read the book individually at their own pace. The teacher should be observing and helping the children who are having difficulties. For example, if a child comes to a word they don’t know such as “bake,” ask “What do you know that might help you?” “Do you know another word that starts like this one?” The child might say “boy.” The teacher might respond by saying, “Yes, it does start the same way; look at the rest of the word.

What other words do you know that end with those three letters?” The students may know the word “make.” Usually they will be able to put the two words together to discover the new word. If the students are reading a book with larger words that cannot be figured out by using pictures or context of the story, the teacher can model how the word can be broken into syllables. As “What useful parts or chunks of the word do we know from other words?” It is helpful to provide something meaningful for early finishers, such as rereading their favorite passage of the book or reading other previously read books for fluency practice. Students could also write words to describe the hen or other characters in the book. They could also prepare a shopping list of ingredients that would be needed to make bread.

Guided Structure Compositions

The teacher creates a writing frame that consists of a skeleton outline to scaffold students’ nonfiction writing. The skeleton framework consists of different key words or phrases, according to the particular generic form. The template of starters, connectives and sentence modifiers which constitute a writing frame gives students a structure within which they can concentrate on communicating what they want to say while scaffolding them in the use of a particular generic form. The use of a frame should always begin with discussion and teacher modeling before moving on to joint construction (teacher and students together) and then to the student undertaking writing supported by the frame.



A form of poetry consisting of three lines having 5 – 7- 5 sound syllables in that order. The subject is usually concrete: something we can see, smell, touch, or feel. The reader tries to see if they can draw a picture, a least in their minds, as a result of reading each line.

Civil War

Brutal battle fought

North against South divided

Union victory

High Frequency Words

High frequency words are words that appear most often in printed material. To teach high frequency words,

• Have students create rebus sentences, using high-frequency words such as the, is, and in.

• Write high-frequency words on cards and have students form sentences using a pocket chart

• Have students keep lists of words they can read and write. When they have trouble with a word, they can refer to their notebooks.

• Point out similarities between new words and those students can already decode.


An expression conforming or appropriate to the peculiar structural forms of a language; in extend use, an expression sanctioned by usage, having a sense peculiar to itself and not agreeing with the logical sense of its structural form; the term “red herring,” an idiom meaning “false

trail;” is used of something which is neither red nor a herring.

1. He was all ears when his boss talked. (listening carefully)

2. He is a chip off the old block. (like his father)

3. He is thick in the head. (stupid)

4. The bank robbers were armed to the teeth. (heavily armed)

5. His comments threw a wet blanket on the discussion. (discouraged)



English uses grammatical inflections (morphemes) to provide different kinds of grammatical

information on the major word classes – nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. English uses the

grammatical morphemes to mark case, number and gender. (This is John’s book. He owns

Several rare books. In verbs, inflections mark

Tense, aspect, voice, modality and mood. (Liz walked with her sister. Liz has helped her often.

Liz was pleased by her cleverness. Liz must be smarter than Dad. God bless this ship and all who sail in her.) In adjectives and adverbs, inflections are used to mark grammatical function and comparison (degree). (Ingenious Liz can do this easily. Liz is smarter than her father. She learns faster than he does.)

Interactive Writing

Interactive writing is an element of a balanced language program that also includes reading aloud, shared reading, guided reading, model writing and independent reading and writing. During interactive writing, the teacher and class or small group work together to create written text. The group agrees on what to write through discussion and negotiation. In order to produce the written

words, the students articulate the sounds with the teacher and then write the letters and chunks of words that they hear. The teacher may fill in parts of words or whole words, depending upon the group’s stage of writing development. Interactive writing is used for creating stories, writing poems, the retelling of favorite literature, recipes, directions and lists. The pieces created by the students become a part of the classroom environment and are used for reading and rereading. The class may use the pieces for shared reading or may enjoy reading some independently.

The Goals: To enhance oral language, explore concepts about print, how words work, sound-letter

associations, and spelling, help develop decoding and encoding skills, provide models for independent


Materials: Chart paper, markers, correction tape (one inch white cover-up sticky tape); a pointer;

an alphabet chart, enlarged list of children’s names to supply known “chunks” for help in writing, a

word wall of known high frequency words. (Optional materials: an easel, white or chalk board,

magnetic letters and metal board, a Magna Doodle).

To Make It Work: Select a child to do the writing who can write


Vocabulary used by a special group or occupational class, usually only partially understood by

outsiders. The special vocabularies of medicine, law, banking, science and technology, education,

military affairs, sports, and the entertainment world all fall under the heading of jargon. Examples

of occupational jargon include such formal technical expressions as preorbital hematoma

(black eye, to the layperson), in medicine, and escrow and discount rate, in finance, and informal

terms such as licorice stick (clarinet, among jazz musicians). Cant, sometimes defined as a false or

insincere language, also (like argot) refers to the jargon and slang used by thieves and beggars and

the underworld. Colorful terms and phrases such as mug (either a police photograph or to attack

a victim), payola (graft or blackmail), hooker (prostitute), and to rub out or to blow away (to kill)

are examples of cant that eventually became commonly known to, and adopted as slang by society

in general.


Jigsaw was originally developed by Elliot Aronson(1978). It has since been adapted by a number

of researchers and practitioners in a variety of ways. Essentially, it is a cooperative learning

lesson design that takes the place of a lecture. Each student within a team has a piece of

the information to be learned by all students and each student is responsible for teaching their

section to the other students on the team. When all the pieces are put together, the students

should have the whole picture – hence the name, Jigsaw. Teaching each other helps students to

understand the material in a way that’s far deeper than when they listen to the teacher explain

it or when they simply discuss it.


Teams of four students are numbered off within teams, so the following steps reflect that.

• Divide the material need to cover a topic into four roughly equal parts.

• Assign a different topic to each team member.

• Develop and assign homework questions or essays over the material. These should probably

be turned in for points or a grade.

• Students consult with experts from other teams.

When student arrive in class, they turn in their homework and then meet in expert groups. If itis asked to read a chapter and write a summary, then this would be the instruction for the group:

• Introduce yourselves to the other expert group members.

• Discuss the reading with the group, coming to consensus on the main points to be taught to

teammates. Everyone should participate.

• Try to think of at least two examples from your personal experiences to illustrate the main


• Plan how to check teammates for understanding without asking “Do you understand?”

• Thank your expert group members for their help.

If it is asked to focus on specific questions for homework, then the instructions might be the


• Introduce yourselves.

• Take turns leading the discussion to compare your responses to the questions. Try to come to

Jigsaw (cont.)

consensus on the most important points. If there are things you can’t agree on, make note of

them to share with your teammates. Also, note any interesting or useful examples from any of

the expert group members. Check for understanding before moving on to the next question.

• Plan a strategy for teaching teammates in the limited amount of time that is allotted.

• Thank the group member for their help.

Other ideas that might be added to the instruction could include:

• Reminders about social and cooperative skills: “The cooperative expectation for this assignment

is that all group members will participate fairly equally in the discussion. It is each

person’s responsibility to ask for the opinions and ideas of quieter group members. The individual

accountability expectation is that any group member could summarize the group discussion

if asked.

Experts return to their teams and teach.

When students return to their base teams, have each team teach in the same order. This way, if

a teams #2 is absent, team members can disperse and sit with the teams next to them when it is

time for the #2’s to teach.

• Team synthesis activity. Try to design an activity which will synthesize the information that

students learned in the four jigsawed pieces. They might write a team essay or solve a problem.

KWL Chart

The K-W-L-H teaching technique is a good method to help students activate prior knowledge. It

is a group instruction activity developed by Donna Ogle (1986) that serves as a model for active

thinking during reading.

K – Stands for helping students recall what they KNOW about the subject.

W – Stands for helping students determine what they WANT to learn.

L – Stands for helping students identify what they LEARN as they read.

H – Stands for HOW we can learn more (other sources where additional information on the

topic can be found)

KWL Chart (cont.)

Students complete the “categories” section at the bottom of the graphic organizer by asking

themselves what each statement in the “L” section (What We Learned) describes.

They use these categories and the information in the “h” section (How Can We Learn More) to

learn more about the topic. Students also can use the categories to create additional graphic

organizers. They can use the organizers to review and write about what they have learned.


What We Know What We Want to Find Out? What We Learned How We Learn More

Dinosaurs are How long ago An archeologist has Research

large did they live? an exciting life. Museums

Dinosaurs are Why did they die? Dinosaurs eat Field Trips

dead plants and some Internet Search

meat. Archeological digs

There is a movie Who are the people Fossils uncover

about dinosaurs who study dinosaurs? dinosaur traits Videos

Language Experience Approach (LEA)

Materials are learner generated. All communication skills: listening, speaking, reading, and

writing are integrated. Learning and teaching is personalized in a shared story or writing. The

general procedure for the language experience approach involves the whole class or small group


• experiencing

• discussing the experience

• recording the experience

• using the record of the experience for reading and writing




Learning Logs

A learning log is a natural and easy way to connect reading and writing. After reading students

are encouraged to summarize their thoughts, feelings, and predictions in this format. Learning

Logs can also be used in science, math, or social studies. Students can record results from

experiments or respond to hands-on math activities in these logs. Some questions students

might answer in a learning log could include “What is the most important thing I learned this

week?” and “What was hard and what was easy?” Another format might be as follows:

This week I studied ….

This week I learned…

This week I used English in these places…

This week I spoke English with these people…

This week I made these mistakes…

This is difficult for me…

I would like to know….













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