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CIP School in the Phils.

“PHILIPPINE WORKS ARE SPREADING EBOLA BACK TO THE PHILIPPINES!!!!

 

MANILA, Philippines (AP) — The World Health Organization called the Ebola outbreak “the most severe, acute health emergency seen in modern times” on Monday but also said that economic disruptions can be curbed if people are adequately informed to prevent irrational moves to dodge infection.

WHO Director-General Margaret Chan, citing World Bank figures, said 90 percent of economic costs of any outbreak “come from irrational and disorganized efforts of the public to avoid infection.”

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Staffers of the global health organization “are very well aware that fear of infection has spread around the world much faster than the virus,” Chan said in a statement read out to a regional health conference in the Philippine capital, Manila.

“We are seeing, right now, how this virus can disrupt economies and societies around the world,” she said, but added that adequately educating the public was a “good defense strategy” and would allow governments to prevent economic disruptions.

The Ebola epidemic has killed more than 4,000 people, mostly in the West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, according to WHO figures published last week.

Chan did not specify those steps but praised the Philippines for holding an anti-Ebola summit last week which was joined by government health officials and private sector representatives, warning that the Southeast Asian country was vulnerable due to the large number of Filipinos working abroad.

While bracing for Ebola, health officials should continue to focus on major health threats, including non-communicable diseases, she said.

Philippine Health Secretary Enrique Ona said authorities will ask more than 1,700 Filipinos working in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea to observe themselves for at least 21 days for Ebola symptoms in those countries first if they plan to return home.

Once home, they should observe themselves for another 21 days and then report the result of their self-screening to health authorities to be doubly sure they have not been infected, he said, adding that hospitals which would deal with any Ebola patients have already been identified in the Philippines.

Last month, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged leaders in the most affected countries to establish special centers that aim to isolate infected people from non-infected relatives in an effort to stem the spread of Ebola.

Ban has also appealed for airlines and shipping companies not to suspend services to countries affected by Ebola. Doing so, he said, hinders delivery of humanitarian and medical assistance.

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“BETTER READ THIS” EBOLA in the “Air conditioning” “SYSTEMS

Industrial air handlers for rent

 

All “BUILDING” have Air conditioning in them and the return air that is cycled through them can and will spread the “EBOLA” all over the buildings.

 

“WHY” has no one said anything about this?

“WHY” has no one said anything on the plans that are going all over the world?

 

Air conditioning (often referred to as A/C, AC or aircon) is the process of altering the properties of air (primarily temperature and humidity) to more comfortable conditions, typically with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality.

Overview[edit]

In common use, an air conditioner is a device that lowers the air temperature. The cooling is typically achieved through a refrigeration cycle, but sometimes evaporation or free cooling is used.

In the most general sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of technology that modifies the condition of air (heating, cooling, (de-)humidification, cleaning, ventilation, or air movement). However, in construction, such a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as HVAC (as opposed to AC).[1]

History[edit]

The basic concept behind air conditioning is said to have been applied in ancient Egypt, where reeds were hung in windows and were moistened with trickling water. The evaporation of water cooled the air blowing through the window. This process also made the air more humid, which can be beneficial in a dry desert climate. In Ancient Rome, water from aqueducts was circulated through the walls of certain houses to cool them. Other techniques in medieval Persia involved the use of cisterns and wind towers to cool buildings during the hot season.[2]

Modern air conditioning emerged from advances in chemistry during the 19th century, and the first large-scale electrical air conditioning was invented and used in 1902 by American inventor Willis Carrier. The introduction of residential air conditioning in the 1920s helped enable the great migration to the Sun Belt in the United States.

Development of mechanical cooling[edit]

Three-quarters scale model of Gorrie’s ice machine John Gorrie State Museum, Florida

The 2nd-century Chinese inventor Ding Huan (fl 180) of the Han Dynasty invented a rotary fan for air conditioning, with seven wheels 3 m (9.8 ft) in diameter and manually powered.[3] In 747, Emperor Xuanzong (r. 712–762) of the Tang Dynasty (618–907) had the Cool Hall (Liang Tian) built in the imperial palace, which the Tang Yulin describes as having water-powered fan wheels for air conditioning as well as rising jet streams of water from fountains. During the subsequent Song Dynasty (960–1279), written sources mentioned the air conditioning rotary fan as even more widely used.[4]

In the 17th century, Cornelis Drebbel demonstrated “Turning Summer into Winter” for James I of England by adding salt to water.[5]

In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley, a chemistry professor at Cambridge University, conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object. Franklin and Hadley confirmed that evaporation of highly volatile liquids (such as alcohol and ether) could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water. They conducted their experiment with the bulb of a mercury thermometer as their object and with a bellows used to speed-up the evaporation. They lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb down to −14 °C (7 °F) while the ambient temperature was 18 °C (64 °F). Franklin noted that, soon after they passed the freezing point of water 0 °C (32 °F), a thin film of ice formed on the surface of the thermometer’s bulb and that the ice mass was about a quarter-inch thick when they stopped the experiment upon reaching −14 °C (7 °F). Franklin concluded: “From this experiment one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer’s day”[6]

In 1820, English scientist and inventor Michael Faraday discovered that compressing and liquefying ammonia could chill air when the liquefied ammonia was allowed to evaporate. In 1842, Florida physician John Gorrie used compressor technology to create ice, which he used to cool air for his patients in his hospital in Apalachicola, Florida.[7] He hoped to eventually use his ice-making machine to regulate the temperature of buildings. He even envisioned centralized air conditioning that could cool entire cities.[8] Though his prototype leaked and performed irregularly, Gorrie was granted a patent in 1851 for his ice-making machine.[9] His hopes for its success vanished soon afterwards when his chief financial backer died; Gorrie did not get the money he needed to develop the machine. According to his biographer, Vivian M. Sherlock, he blamed the “Ice King”, Frederic Tudor, for his failure, suspecting that Tudor had launched a smear campaign against his invention. Dr. Gorrie died impoverished in 1855, and the idea of air conditioning went away for 50 years.

Since prehistoric times, snow and ice were used for cooling. The business of harvesting ice during winter and storing for use in summer became popular towards the late 19th century.[10] This practice was replaced by mechanical ice-making machines.

James Harrison‘s first mechanical ice-making machine began operation in 1851 on the banks of the Barwon River at Rocky Point in Geelong (Australia). His first commercial ice-making machine followed in 1854, and his patent for an ether vapor compression refrigeration system was granted in 1855. This novel system used a compressor to force the refrigeration gas to pass through a condenser, where it cooled down and liquefied. The liquefied gas then circulated through the refrigeration coils and vaporised again, cooling down the surrounding system. The machine employed a 5 m (16 ft.) flywheel and produced 3,000 kilograms (6,600 lb) of ice per day.[citation needed]

Though Harrison had commercial success establishing a second ice company back in Sydney in 1860, he later entered the debate over how to compete against the American advantage of unrefrigerated beef sales to the United Kingdom. He wrote: “Fresh meat frozen and packed as if for a voyage, so that the refrigerating process may be continued for any required period”, and in 1873 prepared the sailing ship Norfolk for an experimental beef shipment to the United Kingdom. His choice of a cold room system instead of installing a refrigeration system upon the ship itself proved disastrous when the ice was consumed faster than expected.[11]

Electromechanical cooling[edit]

In 1902, the first modern electrical air conditioning unit was invented by Willis Carrier in Buffalo, New York. After graduating from Cornell University, Carrier found a job at the Buffalo Forge Company. While there, he began experimenting with air conditioning as a way to solve an application problem for the Sackett-Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Company in Brooklyn, New York. The first air conditioner, designed and built in Buffalo by Carrier, began working on 17 July 1902.

Designed to improve manufacturing process control in a printing plant, Carrier’s invention controlled not only temperature but also humidity. Carrier used his knowledge of the heating of objects with steam and reversed the process. Instead of sending air through hot coils, he sent it through cold coils (filled with cold water). The air was cooled, and thereby the amount of moisture in the air could be controlled, which in turn made the humidity in the room controllable. The controlled temperature and humidity helped maintain consistent paper dimensions and ink alignment. Later, Carrier’s technology was applied to increase productivity in the workplace, and The Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America was formed to meet rising demand. Over time, air conditioning came to be used to improve comfort in homes and automobiles as well. Residential sales expanded dramatically in the 1950s.

In 1906, Stuart W. Cramer of Charlotte, North Carolina was exploring ways to add moisture to the air in his textile mill. Cramer coined the term “air conditioning”, using it in a patent claim he filed that year as an analogue to “water conditioning”, then a well-known process for making textiles easier to process. He combined moisture with ventilation to “condition” and change the air in the factories, controlling the humidity so necessary in textile plants. Willis Carrier adopted the term and incorporated it into the name of his company.[citation needed]

Shortly thereafter, the first private home to have air conditioning was built in Chapel Hill, North Carolina in 1933. Realizing that air conditioning would one day be a standard feature of private homes, particularly in regions with warmer climate, David St. Pierre DuBose (1898-1994) designed a network of ductwork and vents for his home Meadowmont, all disguised behind intricate and attractive Georgian-style open moldings. This building is believed to be one of the first private homes in the United States equipped for central air conditioning.[12]

In 1945, Robert Sherman of Lynn, Massachusetts invented a portable, in-window air conditioner that cooled, heated, humidified, dehumidified, and filtered the air. The idea was subsequently stolen[citation needed] by a large manufacturer.[which?] Sherman did not have the resources to fight the big corporation in court and thus never received any money or recognition. He died in 1962.[13]

Refrigerant development[edit]

Main article: Refrigerant

A modern R-134a hermetic refrigeration compressor

The first air conditioners and refrigerators employed toxic or flammable gases, such as ammonia, methyl chloride, or propane, that could result in fatal accidents when they leaked. Thomas Midgley, Jr. created the first non-flammable, non-toxic chlorofluorocarbon gas, Freon, in 1928. The name is a trademark name owned by DuPont for any Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant. The refrigerant names include a number indicating the molecular composition (e.g. R-11, R-12, R-22, R-134A). The blend most used in direct-expansion home and building comfort cooling is an HCFC known as R-22.

R-12 was the most common blend used in automobiles in the US until 1994, when most designs changed to R-134A due to the ozone-depleting potential of R-12. R-11 and R-12 are no longer manufactured in the US for this type of application, so the only source for air-conditioning repair purposes is the cleaned and purified gas recovered from other air conditioner systems. Several non-ozone-depleting refrigerants have been developed as alternatives, including R-410A. It was first commercially used by Carrier Corp. under the brand name Puron.

Modern refrigerants have been developed to be more environmentally safe than many of the early chlorofluorocarbon-based refrigerants used in the early- and mid-twentieth century. These include as HCFCs (R-22, used in most U.S. homes even before 2011) and HFCs (R-134a, used in most cars) have replaced most CFC use. HCFCs, in turn, are supposed to have been in the process of being phased out under the Montreal Protocol and replaced by hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) such as R-410A, which lack chlorine.[citation needed] HFCs, however, contribute to climate change problems. Moreover, policy and political influence by corporate executives resisted change.[14][15] In fact, since corporate executives insisted that no alternatives to HFCs existed, the non-governmental organization (NGO) Greenpeace solicited a European laboratory to research an alternative ozone- and climate-safe refrigerant in 1992, gained patent rights to a hydrocarbon mix of isopentane and isobutane, but then left the technology as open access.[16][17] Their activist marketing first in Germany led to companies like Whirlpool, Bosch, and later LG and others to incorporate the technology throughout Europe, then Asia, although the corporate executives resisted in Latin America, so that it arrived in Argentina produced by a domestic firm in 2003, and then finally with giant Bosch’s production in Brazil by 2004.[18][19] In 1995, Germany made CFC refrigerators illegal.[20] Du Pont and other companies blocked the refrigerant in the U.S. with the U.S. E.P.A., disparaging the approach as “that German technology.”[19][21] Nevertheless, in 2004, Greenpeace worked with multinational corporations like Coca-Cola and Unilever, and later Pepsico and others, to create a corporate coalition called Refrigerants Naturally!.[20][22][23] Then, four years later, Ben & Jerry’s of Unilever and General Electric began to take steps to support production and use in the U.S.[24][25] Only in 2011 did the E.P.A. finally decide in favor of the ozone- and climate-safe refrigerant for U.S. manufacture.[16][26][27]

Operating principles[edit]

Refrigeration cycle[edit]

Main article: Refrigeration cycle

A simple stylized diagram of the refrigeration cycle: 1) condensing coil, 2) expansion valve, 3) evaporator coil, 4) compressor

Capillary expansion valve connection to evaporator inlet. Notice frost formation

In the refrigeration cycle, heat is transported from a colder location to a hotter area. As heat would naturally flow in the opposite direction, work is required to achieve this. A refrigerator is an example of such a system, as it transports the heat out of the interior and into its environment (i.e. the room). The refrigerant is used as the medium which absorbs and removes heat from the space to be cooled and subsequently rejects that heat elsewhere.

Circulating refrigerant vapor enters the compressor and is compressed to a higher pressure, resulting in a higher temperature as well. The hot, compressed refrigerant vapor is now at a temperature and pressure at which it can be condensed and is routed through a condenser. Here it is cooled by air flowing across the condenser coils and condensed into a liquid. Thus, the circulating refrigerant rejects heat from the system and the heat is carried away by the air.

The condensed and pressurized liquid refrigerant is next routed through an expansion valve where it undergoes an abrupt reduction in pressure. That pressure reduction results in flash evaporation of a part of the liquid refrigerant, lowering its temperature. The cold refrigerant is then routed through the evaporator. A fan blows the warm air (which is to be cooled) across the evaporator, causing the liquid part of the cold refrigerant mixture to evaporate as well, further lowering the temperature. The warm air is therefore cooled.

To complete the refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant vapor is routed back into the compressor.

By placing the condenser inside a compartment, and the evaporator in the ambient environment (such as outside), or by merely running an air conditioner’s refrigerant in the opposite direction, the overall effect is the opposite, and the compartment is heated instead of cooled. See also heat pump.

The engineering of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas–vapor mixtures is called psychrometrics.

Heat pump[edit]

Main article: Heat pump

Heat pump is a term for a type of air conditioner in which the refrigeration cycle can be reversed, producing heating instead of cooling in the indoor environment. They are also commonly referred to, and marketed as, a “reverse cycle air conditioner”. Using an air conditioner in this way to produce heat is significantly more energy efficient than electric resistance heating. Some homeowners elect to have a heat pump system installed, which is simply a central air conditioner with heat pump functionality (the refrigeration cycle can be reversed in cold weather). When the heat pump is in heating mode, the indoor evaporator coil switches roles and becomes the condenser coil, producing heat. The outdoor condenser unit also switches roles to serve as the evaporator, and discharges cold air (colder than the ambient outdoor air).

Heat pumps are more popular in milder winter climates where the temperature is frequently in the range of 40–55 °F (4–13 °C), because heat pumps become inefficient in more extreme cold. This is due to the problem of ice forming on the outdoor unit’s heat exchanger coil, which blocks air flow over the coil. To compensate for this, the heat pump system must temporarily switch back into the regular air conditioning mode to switch the outdoor evaporator coil back to being the condenser coil, so that it can heat up and defrost. A heat pump system will therefore have a form of electric resistance heating in the indoor air path that is activated only in this mode in order to compensate for the temporary indoor air cooling, which would otherwise be uncomfortable in the winter. The icing problem becomes much more severe with lower outdoor temperatures, so heat pumps are commonly installed in tandem with a more conventional form of heating, such as a natural gas or oil furnace, which is used instead of the heat pump during harsher winter temperatures. In this case, the heat pump is used efficiently during the milder temperatures, and the system is switched to the conventional heat source when the outdoor temperature is lower.it also works on the basis of carnot cycle

Absorption heat pumps are actually a kind of air-source heat pump, but they do not depend on electricity to power them. Instead, gas, solar power, or heated water is used as a main power source. Additionally, refrigerant is not used at all in the process.[dubious ] An absorption pump absorbs ammonia into water.[further explanation needed] Next, the water and ammonia mixture is depressurized to induce boiling, and the ammonia is boiled off, resulting in cooling.[28]

Some more expensive window air conditioning units have a true heat pump function. However, a window unit that has a “heat” selection is not necessarily a heat pump because some units use only electric resistance heat when heating is desired. A unit that has true heat pump functionality will be indicated its specifications by the term “heat pump”.

Evaporative cooling[edit]

Main article: Evaporative cooler

An evaporative cooler

In very dry climates, evaporative coolers, sometimes referred to as swamp coolers or desert coolers, are popular for improving coolness during hot weather. An evaporative cooler is a device that draws outside air through a wet pad, such as a large sponge soaked with water. The sensible heat of the incoming air, as measured by a dry bulb thermometer, is reduced. The total heat (sensible heat plus latent heat) of the entering air is unchanged. Some of the sensible heat of the entering air is converted to latent heat by the evaporation of water in the wet cooler pads. If the entering air is dry enough, the results can be quite cooling. Evaporative coolers tend to feel as if they are not working during times of high humidity, when there is not much dry air with which the coolers can work to make the air as cool as possible for dwelling occupants. Unlike other types of air conditioners, evaporative coolers rely on the outside air to be channeled through cooler pads that cool the air before it reaches the inside of a house through its air duct system; this cooled outside air must be allowed to push the warmer air within the house out through an exhaust opening such as an open door or window.[29] These coolers cost less and are mechanically simple to understand and maintain.

An early type of cooler, using ice for a further effect, was patented by John Gorrie of Apalachicola, Florida in 1842. He used the device to cool the patients in his malaria hospital.[citation needed]

Free cooling[edit]

Main article: Free cooling

Air conditioning can also be provided by a process called free cooling which uses pumps to circulate a coolant (typically water or a glycol mix) from a cold source, which in turn acts as a heat sink for the energy that is removed from the cooled space. Common storage media are deep aquifers or a natural underground rock mass accessed via a cluster of small-diameter boreholes, equipped with heat exchanger. Some systems with small storage capacity are hybrid systems, using free cooling early in the cooling season, and later employing a heat pump to chill the circulation coming from the storage. The heat pump is added because the temperature of the storage gradually increases during the cooling season, thereby declining its effectiveness.

Free cooling systems can have very high efficiencies, and are sometimes combined with seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) so the cold of winter can be used for summer air conditioning. Free cooling and hybrid systems are mature technology.[30]

Humidity control[edit]

Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space.

Dehumidification and cooling[edit]

Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the absolute humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dewpoint) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air, much like an ice-cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass. Therefore, water vapor is removed from the cooled air and the relative humidity in the room is lowered. The water is usually sent to a drain or may simply drip onto the ground outdoors. The heat is rejected by the condenser which is located outside of room to be cooled.

Dehumidification only[edit]

Main article: Dehumidifier

Typical portable dehumidifier

An air conditioner that is used only for dehumidifying is called a dehumidifier. It also uses a refrigeration cycle, but differs from a “regular” air conditioner in that both the evaporator and the condenser are placed in the same air path. A “regular” air conditioner transfers heat energy out of the room because its condenser coil is outside. However, since all components of the dehumidifier are in the same room, no heat energy is removed. Instead, the electric power consumed by the dehumidifier remains in the room as heat, so the room is actually heated, just as by an electric heater that draws the same amount of power. In addition, if the condensed water has been removed from the room, the amount of heat needed to boil that water has been added to the room (the “latent heat of vaporization“). The dehumidification process is the inverse of adding water to the room with an evaporative cooler, and instead releases heat.

Inside the unit, the air passes over the evaporator coil first and is cooled and dehumidified. The now dehumidified, cold air then passes over the condenser coil where it is warmed up again. Then the air is released back into the room. The unit produces warm, dehumidified air and can usually be placed freely in the environment (room) that is to be conditioned.

Dehumidifiers are commonly used in cold, damp climates to prevent mold growth indoors, especially in basements. They are also used to protect sensitive equipment from the adverse effects of excessive humidity in tropical countries.

Energy transfer[edit]

In a thermodynamically closed system, any power dissipated into the system that is being maintained at a set temperature (which is a standard mode of operation for modern air conditioners) requires that the rate of energy removal by the air conditioner increase. This increase has the effect that, for each unit of energy input into the system (say to power a light bulb in the closed system), the air conditioner removes that energy.[31] In order to do so, the air conditioner must increase its power consumption by the inverse of its “efficiency” (coefficient of performance) times the amount of power dissipated into the system. As an example, assume that inside the closed system a 100 W heating element is activated, and the air conditioner has an coefficient of performance of 200%. The air conditioner’s power consumption will increase by 50 W to compensate for this, thus making the 100 W heating element cost a total of 150 W of power.

It is typical for air conditioners to operate at “efficiencies” of significantly greater than 100%.[32] However, it may be noted that the input electrical energy is of higher thermodynamic quality (lower entropy) than the output thermal energy (heat energy).

Air conditioner equipment power in the U.S. is often described in terms of “tons of refrigeration”. A ton of refrigeration is approximately equal to the cooling power of one short ton (2000 pounds or 907 kilograms) of ice melting in a 24-hour period. The value is defined as 12,000 BTU per hour, or 3517 watts.[33] Residential central air systems are usually from 1 to 5 tons (3 to 20 kilowatts (kW)) in capacity.

Seasonal energy efficiency ratio[edit]

For residential homes, some countries set minimum requirements for energy efficiency. In the United States, the efficiency of air conditioners is often (but not always) rated by the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER). The higher the SEER rating, the more energy efficient is the air conditioner. The SEER rating is the BTU of cooling output during its normal annual usage divided by the total electric energy input in watt hours (W·h) during the same period.[34]

SEER = BTU ÷ (W·h)

this can also be rewritten as:

SEER = (BTU / h) ÷ W, where “W” is the average electrical power in Watts, and (BTU/h) is the rated cooling power.

For example, a 5000 BTU/h air-conditioning unit, with a SEER of 10, would consume 5000/10 = 500 Watts of power on average.

The electrical energy consumed per year can be calculated as the average power multiplied by the annual operating time:

500 W × 1000 h = 500,000 W·h = 500 kWh

Assuming 1000 hours of operation during a typical cooling season (i.e., 8 hours per day for 125 days per year).

Another method that yields the same result, is to calculate the total annual cooling output:

5000 BTU/h × 1000 h = 5,000,000 BTU

Then, for a SEER of 10, the annual electrical energy usage would be:

5,000,000 BTU ÷ 10 = 500,000 W·h = 500 kWh

SEER is related to the coefficient of performance (COP) commonly used in thermodynamics and also to the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER). The EER is the efficiency rating for the equipment at a particular pair of external and internal temperatures, while SEER is calculated over a whole range of external temperatures (i.e., the temperature distribution for the geographical location of the SEER test). SEER is unusual in that it is composed of an Imperial unit divided by an SI unit. The COP is a ratio with the same metric units of energy (joules) in both the numerator and denominator. They cancel out, leaving a dimensionless quantity. Formulas for the approximate conversion between SEER and EER or COP are available from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company:[35]

(1) SEER = EER ÷ 0.9
(2) SEER = COP × 3.792
(3) EER = COP × 3.413

From equation (2) above, a SEER of 13 is equivalent to a COP of 3.43, which means that 3.43 units of heat energy are pumped per unit of work energy.

The United States now requires that residential systems manufactured in 2006 have a minimum SEER rating of 13 (although window-box systems are exempt from this law, so their SEER is still around 10).[36]

Installation types[edit]

Window unit and packaged terminal[edit]

Air conditioning window unit

Parts of a windows unit

Window unit air conditioners are installed in an open window. The interior air is cooled as a fan blows it over the evaporator. On the exterior the heat drawn from the interior is dissipated into the environment as a second fan blows outside air over the condenser. A large house or building may have several such units, permitting each room to be cooled separately.[37]

PTAC systems are also known as wall-split air conditioning systems or ductless systems.[38] These PTAC systems which are frequently used in hotels have two separate units (terminal packages), the evaporative unit on the interior and the condensing unit on the exterior, with an opening passing through the wall and connecting them. This minimizes the interior system footprint and allows each room to be adjusted independently. PTAC systems may be adapted to provide heating in cold weather, either directly by using an electric strip, gas, or other heater, or by reversing the refrigerant flow to heat the interior and draw heat from the exterior air, converting the air conditioner into a heat pump. While room air conditioning provides maximum flexibility, when used to cool many rooms at a time it is generally more expensive than central air conditioning.

The first practical through-the-wall air conditioning unit was invented by engineers at Chrysler Motors and offered for sale starting in 1935.[39]

Split systems[edit]

Split-system air conditioners come in two forms: mini-split and central systems. In both types, the inside-environment (evaporative) heat exchanger is separated by some distance from the outside-environment (condensing unit) heat exchanger.

Mini-split (ductless) system[edit]

Outside part of a ductless split-type air conditioner

Indoor part of a ductless split-type air conditioner

A mini-split system typically supplies chilled air to a single or a few rooms of a building.[40] Mini-split systems typically produce 9,000–36,000 Btu (9,500–38,000 kJ) per hour of cooling.[41]

Advantages of the ductless system include smaller size and flexibility for zoning or heating and cooling individual rooms. The inside wall space required is significantly reduced. Also, the compressor and heat exchanger can be located further away from the inside space, rather than merely on the other side of the same unit as in a PTAC or window air conditioner. Flexible exterior hoses lead from the outside unit to the interior one(s); these are often enclosed with metal to look like common drainpipes from the roof. In addition, ductless systems offer higher efficiency (up to 27.1 SEER on some systems).[citation needed]

The primary disadvantage of ductless air conditioners is their cost. Such systems cost about $1,500 to $2,000 per ton (12,000 Btu per hour) of cooling capacity. This is about 30% more than central systems (not including ductwork) and may cost more than twice as much as window units of similar capacity.”[42]

An additional possible disadvantage that may increase net cost is that ductless systems may sometimes not be eligible for energy efficiency rebates offered by many electric utility companies as part of an incentive program to reduce summer cooling load on the electrical grid.[43]

Central (ducted) air conditioning[edit]

Central (ducted) air conditioning offers whole-house or large-commercial-space cooling, and often offers moderate multi-zone temperature control capability by the addition of air-louver-control boxes.

In central air conditioning, the inside heat-exchanger is typically placed inside the central furnace/AC unit of the forced air heating system which is then used in the summer to distribute chilled air throughout a residence or commercial building.

Portable units[edit]

A portable air conditioner can be easily transported inside a home or office. They are currently available with capacities of about 5,000–60,000 BTU/h (1,800–18,000 W output) and with or without electric-resistance heaters. Portable air conditioners are either evaporative or refrigerative.

The compressor-based refrigerant systems are air-cooled, meaning they use air to exchange heat, in the same way as a car or typical household air conditioner does. Such a system dehumidifies the air as it cools it. It collects water condensed from the cooled air and produces hot air which must be vented outside the cooled area; doing so transfers heat from the air in the cooled area to the outside air.

Portable split system[edit]

A portable split system has an indoor unit on wheels connected to an outdoor unit via flexible pipes, similar to a permanently fixed installed unit.

Portable hose system[edit]

Hose systems, which can be monoblock or air-to-air, are vented to the outside via air ducts. The monoblock type collects the water in a bucket or tray and stops when full. The air-to-air type re-evaporates the water and discharges it through the ducted hose and can run continuously.

A single-hose unit uses air from within the room to cool its condenser, and then vents it outside. This air is replaced by hot air from outside or other rooms (due to the negative pressure inside the room), thus reducing the unit’s effectiveness.[44]

Modern units might have a coefficient of performance of approximately 3 (i.e., 1 kW of electricity will produce 3 kW of cooling). A dual-hose unit draws air to cool its condenser from outside instead of from inside the room, and thus is more effective than most single-hose units.

Portable evaporative system[edit]

Evaporative coolers, sometimes called “swamp coolers”, do not have a compressor or condenser. Liquid water is evaporated on the cooling fins, releasing the vapor into the cooled area. Evaporating water absorbs a significant amount of heat, the latent heat of vaporisation, cooling the air. Humans and animals use the same mechanism to cool themselves by sweating.

Evaporative coolers have the advantage of needing no hoses to vent heat outside the cooled area, making them truly portable. They are also very cheap to install and use less energy than refrigerative air conditioners.

Disadvantages are that unless ambient humidity is low (as in a dry climate), cooling is limited and the cooled air is very humid and can feel clammy. Also, they use a lot of water, which is often at a premium in the dry climates where they work best.

Uses[edit]

Air-conditioning engineers broadly divide air conditioning applications into comfort and process applications.

Comfort applications[edit]

Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains relatively constant despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads.

Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible, for otherwise they would have to be built narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces received sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. Air conditioning also allows buildings to be taller, since wind speed increases significantly with altitude making natural ventilation impractical for very tall buildings.[citation needed] Comfort applications are quite different for various building types and may be categorized as:

  • Commercial buildings, which are built for commerce, including offices, malls, shopping centers, restaurants, etc.
  • High-rise residential buildings, such as tall dormitories and apartment blocks
  • Industrial spaces where thermal comfort of workers is desired
  • Institutional buildings, which includes government buildings, hospitals, schools, etc.
  • Low-rise residential buildings, including single-family houses, duplexes, and small apartment buildings
  • Sports stadiums, such as the University of Phoenix Stadium[45] and in Qatar for the 2022 FIFA World Cup.[46]

The structural impact of an air conditioning unit will depend on the type and size of the unit.[47]

In addition to buildings, air conditioning can be used for many types of transportation, including automobiles, buses and other land vehicles, trains, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft.

Domestic use[edit]

Air conditioning is common in the US, with 88% of new single-family homes constructed in 2011 including air conditioning, ranging from 99% in the South to 62% in the West.[48] In Europe, home air conditioning is generally less common. Southern European countries such as Greece have seen a wide proliferation of home air-conditioning units in recent years.[49] In another southern European country, Malta, it is estimated that around 55% of households have an air conditioner installed.[50] In India AC sales have dropped by 40% [clarification needed] due to higher costs and stricter energy efficiency regulations.[51]

Process applications[edit]

Process applications aim to provide a suitable environment for a process being carried out, regardless of internal heat and humidity loads and external weather conditions. It is the needs of the process that determine conditions, not human preference. Process applications include these:

In both comfort and process applications, the objective may be to not only control temperature, but also humidity, air quality, and air movement from space to space.

Health issues[edit]

Air-conditioning systems can promote the growth and spread of microorganisms,[52] such as Legionella pneumophila, the infectious agent responsible for Legionnaires’ disease, or thermophilic actinomycetes; however, this is only prevalent in poorly maintained water cooling towers. As long as the cooling tower is kept clean (usually by means of a chlorine treatment), these health hazards can be avoided.

Conversely, air conditioning (including filtration, humidification, cooling and disinfection) can be used to provide a clean, safe, hypoallergenic atmosphere in hospital operating rooms and other environments where an appropriate atmosphere is critical to patient safety and well-being. Excessive air conditioning can have a negative effect on skin, drying it out,[53] and can also cause dehydration.[54]

Environmental impact[edit]

Power consumption[edit]

Innovation in air conditioning technologies continues, with much recent emphasis placed on energy efficiency. Production of the electricity used to operate air conditioners has an environmental impact, including the release of greenhouse gasses.

Cylinder unloaders are a method of load control used mainly in commercial air conditioning systems. On a semi-hermetic (or open) compressor, the heads can be fitted with unloaders which remove a portion of the load from the compressor so that it can run better when full cooling is not needed. Unloaders can be electrical or mechanical.

In an automobile, the A/C system will use around 4 horsepower (3 kW) of the engine’s power, thus increasing fuel consumption of the vehicle.[55]

Refrigerants[edit]

Most refrigerants used for air conditioning contribute to global warming, and many also deplete the ozone layer.[56] CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs are potent greenhouse gases when leaked to the atmosphere.

The use of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) as a refrigerant was once common, being used in the refrigerants R-11 and R-12 and R 134 (sold under the brand name Freon-12). Freon refrigerants were commonly used during the 20th century in air conditioners due to their superior stability and safety properties. However, these chlorine-bearing refrigerants reach the upper atmosphere when they escape.[57] Once the refrigerant reaches the stratosphere, UV radiation from the Sun homolytically cleaves the chlorine-carbon bond, yielding a chlorine radical. These chlorine atoms catalyze the breakdown of ozone into diatomic oxygen, depleting the ozone layer that shields the Earth’s surface from strong UV radiation. Each chlorine radical remains active as a catalyst unless it binds with another chlorine radical, forming a stable molecule and breaking the chain reaction.

Prior to 1994, most automotive air conditioning systems used R-12 as a refrigerant. It was replaced with R-134a refrigerant, which has a lower ozone depletion potential. Old R-12 systems can be retrofitted to R-134a by a complete flush and filter/dryer replacement to remove the mineral oil, which is not compatible with R-134a.

R-22 (also known as HCFC-22) has a global warming potential about 1,800 times higher than CO2.[58] It was to be phased out for use in new equipment by 2010, and is to be completely discontinued by 2020. Although those gasses can be recycled when air conditioning units are disposed of, uncontrolled dumping and leaking can accidentally release those gas directly in the atmosphere.

In most countries[which?] the manufacture and use of CFCs has been banned or severely restricted due to concerns about ozone depletion (see also Montreal Protocol).[59] In light of these environmental concerns, beginning on November 14, 1994, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has restricted the sale, possession and use of refrigerant to only licensed technicians, per Rules 608 and 609 of the EPA rules and regulations.[60]

As an alternative to conventional refrigerants, natural gases, such as CO2 (R-744), have been proposed.[61] R-744 is being adopted as a refrigerant in Europe and Japan. It is an effective refrigerant with a global warming potential of 1, but it must use higher compression to produce an equivalent cooling effect.[citation needed]

In fact, in 1992, a non-governmental organization was spurred by corporate executive policies and requested that a European lab find a substitute. The result quickly led to two alternative mixes, one of propane (R290) and isobutane (R60Oa), and one of pure isobutane.[17][20] Corporate executives resisted change in Europe only until 1993, but in the U.S. until 2011, despite some supportive steps in 2004 and 2008 (see Refrigerant Development above).

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“IF” you want to learn english try this and watch the movie

*Teachers can make a class “FUN” never say the same thing to students,
never always say good morning, maybe if it is after lunch to see if the
hear you!!! Haaha and they turn and say “NO” teacher it is afternoon.
Always change your teaching ways. Never be the same. *

*IT IS NOT WHAT I TEACH YOU TODAY*

*IT IS WHAT YOU REMEMBER TOMMORROW!!!!*

1. wordpress.com <http://eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com/>
2. alvindavis99.wordpress.com
3. alvinlesterdavis.wordpress.com

 

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NFL Black MEN arrested all the time “WHY”

NFL PLAYER ARRESTS: SHOWING 732 Record(s)

Date Team Name POS Case Category Description Outcome
2014-09-17 ARI Jonathan Dwyer RB Arrested Domestic violence Suspected of aggravated assault in incident involving woman.  Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-09-11 MIN Adrian Peterson RB Indicted Child abuse Grand jury in Texas indicted Peterson on a charge of injury to a child. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-09-04 NYJ Quincy Enunwa WR Arrested Domestic violence Charged with simple assault after alleged incident with woman at hotel in Florham Park, N.J. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-08-30 SF Ray McDonald DE Arrested Domestic violence Suspected of domestic violence against pregnant fiance, who showed police bruising on her body. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-08-23 BUF Alan Branch DT Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving, blood-alcohol content of 0.14, after police say they noticed him vomiting out of car door. Resolution undetermined. Team released him the next day.Black man
2014-08-20 PIT Le’Veon Bell RB Arrested Drugs Pulled over and suspected of marijuana possession with teammate LeGarrette Blount in passenger seat. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-08-20 PIT LeGarrette Blount RB Detained Drugs Was riding in passenger seat when police pulled over car driven by teammate Le’Veon Bell. Suspected of possessing bag with about 20 ounces of marijuana. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-08-11 WAS Bashaud Breeland CB Cited Drugs Cited for marijuana possession at gas station by police of Virginia Commonwealth University. Resolution undetermined.Black man
2014-07-23 JAX Justin Blackmon WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over for traffic violation in Oklahoma, accused of marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-07-20 STL Jo-Lonn Dunbar LB Arrested Battery Accused of getting into a fight with NBA free agent Donte Greene outside club in Miami Beach. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-07-18 PHI Keelan Johnson S Arrested Assault Accused of striking police officer, disordery conduct during disturbance at a bar in Tempe, Ariz. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-07-12 BAL Jimmy Smith CB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of refusing to obey police orders during incident at a bar in Maryland. Smith said he was trying to help an intoxicated woman. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-07-07 MIN Jerome Simpson WR Cited Drugs Pulled over and suspected of marijuana possession, open container and violating terms of his driver’s license. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-07-05 CLE Josh Gordon WR Arrested DUI Accused of driving while impaired after being pulled over for speeding in Raleigh, N.C. Pleaded guilty, 60-day suspended sentence, $390 in fines and costs. NFL suspended for season, then reduced to 10 games.Black men
2014-06-29 ARI John Abraham LB Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after an officer found him passed out behind the wheel of his car outside Atlanta. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-06-20 CHI Cornelius Washington DE Arrested License Pulled over for speeding, accused of driving with a suspended license in Georgia. Paid fines.Black men
2014-06-09 KC Sean Smith CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after a police officer said he saw Smith drive his car into a pole in Kansas City. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-05-30 BUF Marcell Dareus DT Arrested Reckless driving Accused of crashing his Jaguar into a tree, drag racing and reckless endangerment in upstate New York. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-05-24 BAL Lorenzo Taliaferro RB Arrested Public intoxication Accused of destroying a taxi cab window in Virginia, being drunk in public. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-05-22 DEN T.J. Ward S Warrant Assault Accused of throwing a glass at a female bartender after being told he couldn’t buy at the strip club. Diversion program, four hours community service.Black men
2014-05-13 CAR Greg Hardy DE Arrested Domestic violence Police responded to call and reported that a woman accused Hardy of assaulting her and threatening her. Convicted by judge on assault charge, 18 months probation. Played first game of 2014 before being deactivated.Black men
2014-05-05 BUF Marcell Dareus DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding in Alabama, accused of felony drug possession. Resolution undetermined.Black men
2014-04-27 CHI Josh Morgan WR Warrant Assault Accused of simple assault, punching another man outside of a nightclub in Washington, D.C. Resolution undetermined.
2014-04-16 JAX Tandon Doss WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of refusing to listen to police orders after two men reported him to police and said Doss was following them in his car. Dropped after prosecutors declined to file charges.
2014-04-13 SF Aldon Smith LB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of making a false bomb threat at Los Angeles airport after being selected for secondary screening. Dropped by prosecutors.
2014-03-31 CIN Orson Charles FB Arrested Gun Accused of brandishing gun in car in apparent road rage incident. Resolution undetermined.
2014-03-29 STL Greg Reid CB Arrested Probation violation Accused of undiclosed probation violation stemming from 2012 arrest after the car he was riding in was pulled over in Georgia for seatbelt violation. Resolution undetermined.
2014-03-28 SF Chris Culliver CB Arrested Reckless driving, weapon Accused of hitting a bicyclist with his vehicle, felony hit-and-run and possession of brass knuckles in San Jose. He allegedly threatened witness with brass knuckles. Resolution undetermined.
2014-03-21 TEN Adewele Ojomo DE Arrested Solicitation Accused of soliciting a prostitute in Miami for $100, busted by undercover cop. Resolution undetermined.
2014-03-09 BAL Jah Reid OL Arrested Battery Acccused of getting into a fight at an adult entertainment establishment in Key West, Fla. Resolution undetermined.
2014-02-21 BAL Deonte Thompson WR Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession after Chevrolet SUV he was riding in was pulled over for driving without its headlights on. Resolution undetermined.
2014-02-20 WAS Fred Davis TE Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Tysons Corner, VA., after passerby called police to report a man apparently asleep in his Rolls-Royce. Resolution undetermined.
2014-02-18 ATL Roddy White WR Arrested Failure to Appear Pulled over for speeding in Georgia, accused of failing to appear on illegal window tint charge from a year earlier. Resolution undetermined.
2014-02-15 BAL Ray Rice RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of striking his wife at Atlantic City casino, rendering her unconscious. She also is accused of hitting him. Diversion program. Two-game suspension, then indefinite suspension, cut by team.
2014-01-26 SF Daniel Kilgore OG Arrested Public intoxication Accused of being drunk in public in Kingsport, Tenn. Resolution undetermined.
2014-01-17 CLE Davone Bess WR Arrested Assault Accused of assaulting a law officer and disorderly conduct after bizzare behavior at airport in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. Resolution undetermined.
2014-01-14 TB Akeem Spence DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding in Alabama, accused of marijuana possession after police dog searched car. Resolution undetermined.
2014-01-12 SEA Spencer Ware RB Arrested DUI Pulled over by Washington State Patrol, suspected of drunken driving in Seattle. Resolution undetermined.
2014-01-09 TB Michael Hill RB Arrested Resisting Arrest Accused of refusing to obey a lawful officer, disorderly conduct stemming from fight at bar in St. Joseph, MO. Resolution undetermined.
2014-01-01 MIN Erin Henderson LB Arrested DUI, drugs Accused of drunken driving for second time since November after allegedly crashing into trees in parking lot. Also accused of marijuana possession. Pleaded guilty to fourth-degree intoxicated driving, two years probation. Team released him next month.
2013-12-30 NYJ Kellen Winslow Jr. TE Charged Drugs Accused of possession of synthetic marijuana after police responded to a complaint of him in a parked car outside a Target store in New Jersey on Nov. 19. Resolution undetermined.
2013-12-29 SD Thomas Keiser LB Arrested Assault Accused of getting into a fight with another man outside a bar in downtown San Diego after chargers’ game. Resolution undetermined.
2013-12-22 CHI Henry Melton DT Arrested Assault, alcohol Accused of public intoxication and attacking an employee at a bar in Grapevine, Texas. Resolution undetermined.
2013-12-20 NYG Will Hill S Arrested Child support Arrested in New Jersey on warrant related to lack of child-support payments. Resolution undetermined.
2013-11-25 MIN A.J. Jefferson CB Arrested Domestic Violence Taken to jail by Eden Prairie police on probable cause of domestic assault. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team hours later.
2013-11-19 MIN Erin Henderson LB Arrested DUI Failed breath test during traffic stop, suspected of drunk driving with blood-alcohol measured at 0.11. He said police didn’t have grounds to stop his car. Pleaded guilty to careless driving, one year of probation, 40 hours community service.
2013-11-10 KC Dwayne Bowe WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over for going 48 mph in a 35-mph zone, accused of marijuana possession after police smelled odor and searched car. Resolution undetermined.
2013-11-09 MIN Jerome Simpson WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving after police responded to a report of a stalled vehicle. He failed sobriety tests. Resolution undetermined.
2013-11-01 ARI Lequan Jefferson TE Arrested DUI Police in Arizona stopped him after report of a collision. Blood-alcohol measured at .156. Resolutoin undetermined. Released by team within days.
2013-10-09 SF Aldon Smith LB Charged Gun Case stems from house party in June 2012, in which Smith was stabbed. Three felony counts of illegal possession of an assault weapon. Pleaded no contest, three years of probation, 235 hours of community service for this and DUI case.
2013-09-23 CIN Adam Jones CB Arrested Disorderly conduct He was the passenger in a car pulled over for speeding and was cited for disorderly conduct. The driver was charged with drunk driving. Resolution undetermined.
2013-09-20 SF Aldon Smith LB Arrested DUI, drugs Accused of drunk driving and marijuana possession after crashing his pickup truck in San Jose, Calif. Pleaded no contest, three years of probation, 235 hours of community service for this and other guns case.
2013-09-05 DEN Von Miller LB Cited License Pulled over for speeding in Arapahoe County, Colo., accused of driving with a suspended license. Second traffic issue in six weeks. Resolution undetermined.
2013-09-02 IND John Boyett S Arrested Public intoxication Accused of getting into an altercation with police, public intoxication and not departing a bar in Indianapolis when asked. Resolution undetermined. Team cut him the next day.
2013-08-28 DEN Julius Thomas TE Arrested Failure to appear Pulled over for speeding, charged with failing to appear in court for previous traffic ticket from Jan. 25, 2013. Resolution Undetermined.
2013-08-17 BUF Nigel Bradham LB Charged Drugs Pulled over for window-tint violation, charged with marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined.
2013-08-11 DEN Von Miller LB Arrested Outstanding warrant Arrested near Denver on warrant for failure to appear in court on previous traffic charges, including careless driving and driving without a license. Resolution undetermined.
2013-07-30 NYJ Joe McKnight RB Arrested Outstanding warrant Pulled over for speeding, he was accused of having outstanding warrants for previous unpaid traffic fines. Resolution undetermined.
2013-07-12 TB Eric Wright CB Arrested DUI Arrested in Los Angeles on suspicion of drunk driving. Previous DUI arrest on 7/2/12. Resolution undetermined. Wright traded to San Francisco a week later.
2013-07-11 NE Alfonzo Dennard CB Arrested DUI Pulled over around 2 a.m. in Lincoln, Neb., arrested on suspicion of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined.
2013-07-06 NYG Dan Connor LB Arrested Weapon Accused of having a switchblade in his luggage at Philadelphia airport. Charged with possession of offensive weapon. Resolution undetermined.
2013-06-29 IND Joe Lefeged S Arrested Gun Accused of fleeing police and multiple gun charges in Washington, D.C., including carrying unlicensed gun. Resolution undetermined.
2013-06-26 NE Aaron Hernandez TE Arrested Murder, gun Charged with first-degree murder in death of friend Odin Lloyd, five gun charges. Indicted and in jail without bail. Released by team.
2013-06-25 CLE Ausar Walcott LB Arrested Attempted murder Turned himself in after allegedly punching man in head outside night club. Pleaded not guilty, case pending. Released by team.
2013-06-12 PHI Jason Peters OT Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of drag racing and resisting arrest in Monroe, La. Pleaded guilty to lesser charges, including resisting officer by flight. Fined $656.50.
2013-06-10 CIN Adam Jones CB Arrested Assault Accused of punching a woman outside a Cincinnati bar on June 5. It is his eighth run-in with the law since 2005. Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-31 CHI Evan Rodriguez FB Arrested DUI Arrested for drunken driving after getting pulled over at 3:30 a.m. Resolution undetermined. Released by team month after arrest.
2013-05-30 TB Cody Grimm S Arrested Public intoxication Arrested in Virginia, where he was attending a wedding. Second arrest on same charge since March. Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-29 NO Joe Morgan WR Arrested DUI Arrested on drunken driving charge after being found asleep behind wheel on expressway in Louisiana Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-19 DEN Quentin Saulsberry C Arrested DUI Pulled over after 2 a.m., accused of drunken driving and lane violation in Arapahoe County, Colo. Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-17 NYJ Mike Goodson RB Arrested Drugs, gun Accused of marijuana possession and having an illegal gun with hollow-point bullets. Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-03 CLE Armonty Bryant DE Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Ada, Okla. Blood-alcohol content of .098. Resolution undetermined.
2013-05-03 ARI Daryl Washington LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting ex-girlfriend, grabbing her by throat and shoving her to the ground. Resolution undetermined.
2013-04-29 NYJ Claude Davis DE Arrested Drugs Charged with marijuana possession after police saw occupied vehicle filled with smoke. Resolution undetermined. Released by team day after arrest.
2013-04-29 NYJ Cliff Harris CB Arrested Drugs Charged with marijuana possession after police saw occupied vehicle filled with smoke. Resolution undetermined. Released by team.
2013-04-21 BAL Rolando McClain LB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of resisting arrest at park in Decatur, Ala., after police responded to report of disturbance Resolution undetermined. Retired month after arrest at age 23.
2013-04-20 DET Ronnell Lewis LB Arrested Public intoxication Charged with three misdemeanors, including disturbing the peace outside bar in Norman, Okla. Pleaded no contest to two misdemeanors, six-month deferred sentence, $400 in fines and costs.
2013-04-18 ATL William Moore S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of grabbing woman by shoulder in dispute, charged with simple battery. Resolution undetermined.
2013-04-17 CLE Quentin Groves LB Arrested Solicitation Accused of responding to sex-for-hire advertisement in prostitution sting. Pleaded no contest, apologized, paid $365.
2013-03-26 DET Amari Spievey S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of third-degree assault, risk of injury to a child and disorderly conduct in dispute with girlfriend about child support. Diversion program. Released from team in August.
2013-03-22 STL Trumaine Johnson CB Arrested DUI Accused of misdmeanor drunken-driving in Missoula, Montana. Resolution undetermined.
2013-03-21 CHI Evan Rodriguez FB Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of disorderly intoxication and resisting arrest after traffic stop in Miami. Charges dropped.
2013-03-10 TB Cody Grimm S Arrested Public intoxication Accused of public intoxication in Christianburg, Va. Deferred disposition.
2013-03-09 DEN Quinton Carter S Arrested Fraud Accused of felony cheating at craps in North Las Vegas casino. He allegedly placed $5 chips on table after dice rolled. Charges dropped.
2013-03-07 ARI Javarris James RB Arrested Failure to appear Accused of failing to appear in court to face previous marijuana possession charge. Resolution undetermined.
2013-02-24 OAK Desmond Bryant DT Arrested Criminal mischief Accused of misdemeanor mischief in Miami. Related lawsuit says he tried to break down door of house. Resolution undetermined.
2013-02-24 CHI J’Marcus Webb OT Arrested Drugs Charged with possession of a controlled substance, marijuana and paraphernalia in Pulaski County, Ill. Charges dropped.
2013-02-23 TEN Brandon Barden TE Arrested DUI Charged with drunken driving after single-car accident in Georgia. Car left road and flipped. Charge dropped.
2013-02-20 SF Al Netter OG Arrested DUI Charged with drunken driving in San Jose, Calif. Resolution undetermined.
2013-02-18 TB Da’Quan Bowers DE Arrested Gun Arrested at LaGuardia airport after allegedly packing gun into his carry-on bag. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of disorderly conduct, fined $370.
2013-02-04 IND Moise Fokou LB Arrested DUI Charged with drunk driving for arrest in January in Washington D.C. Resolution undetermined.
2013-01-29 SEA Leroy Hill LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of third-degree assault and unlawful imprisonment in dispute with girlfriend. Charges dropped for lack of evidence. Not re-signed by Seattle.
2013-01-22 DAL Jay Ratliff DT Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after crashing his Ford pickup truck into an 18-wheeler. Resolution undetermined.
2013-01-17 CIN Andre Smith OT Arrested Gun Accused of bringing loaded .38 pistol in carry-on bag at the Atlanta airport. Resolution undetermined.
2013-01-10 PIT Chris Rainey RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of slapping girlfriend in face in dispute over cell phone. Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct, $500 in fines and costs. Released by team hours later.
2013-01-08 OAK Rolando McClain LB Arrested False name Pulled over for window-tint violation in Alabama, accused of giving false name to police. Pleaded guilty to window-tint charge. Other charge dropped.
2013-01-04 CIN Robert Sands S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting his wife at their home in Florence, Ky. Wife treated at hospital for minor injuries. Released by team in June.
2012-12-08 DAL Josh Brent DT Arrested DUI Charged with intoxication manslaughter after flipping his car, killing teammate Jerry Brown. Police report blood-alcohol content at .189. Indicted on intoxication manslaughter. Retired from football. Free on bond, pending trial.
2012-12-01 KC Jovan Belcher LB Died Murder, gun Fatally shot his girlfriend 10 times, then drove to team facility and fatally shot himself in head. Suspect dead
2012-11-30 SF Demarcus Dobbs TE Arrested DUI Suspected of drunk driving and marijuana possession at 3:45 a.m. after crashing car on 25th birthday. Resolution undetermined.
2012-11-26 MIA Jonathan Amaya S Arrested Battery Accused of choking cab driver outside club in Miami Beach at 4:30 a.m. Resolution undetermined.
2012-10-31 NYJ Bryan Thomas LB Arrested Domestic violence Charged with assault on wife at their New Jersey home. He allegedly punched her in stomach. Probation, pretrial intervention program.
2012-10-30 TB Ahmad Black CB Cited Drugs Accused of having less than 20 grams of marijuana after being pulled over at 1:56 a.m. Resolution undetermined.
2012-10-14 PIT Alameda Ta’amu DT Arrested DUI Accused of resisting arrest, eluding police and drunk driving after hitting several parked cars Resolution undetermined.
2012-09-24 ATL John Abraham DE Arrested Obstruction Accused of obstructing police and firefighters who responded to a call about a woman threatening to jump from a building. Resolution undetermined.
2012-09-18 ATL Michael Turner RB Arrested DUI Charged with drunk driving just hours after scoring a touchdown in a win against Denver on Monday night. Resolution undetermined.
2012-08-25 SEA John Moffitt OG Arrested Disorderly conduct Banned from mall in Bellevue, Wash., in January 2012, he later was accused of trespassing there, obstrucing police and public urination. Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct, $1,407 fine, two-year suspended jail sentence.
2012-08-11 MIA Chad Johnson WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of head-butting the wife he married a month earlier. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanor domestic violence, probation. Cut by team.
2012-07-21 DET Aaron Berry CB Arrested Assault, gun Charged with simple assault during incident in which he brandished a gun. Released by team same week.
2012-07-20 TEN Kenny Britt WR Arrested DUI Charged with drunken driving after trying to pass through security gate at Fort Campbell Army post in Kentucky. Found not guilty of DUI, guilty of refusing Breathalyzer test.
2012-07-19 KC Donald Washington CB Arrested DUI, drugs Stopped for speeding by Illinois state police, who detected an odor of marijuana. Charged with DUI drugs. Resolution undetermined.
2012-07-16 DAL Dez Bryant WR Arrested Domestic violence Turned himself in after being accused by his mother of hitting her. Resolution undetermined.
2012-07-14 DEN Elvis Dumervil DE Arrested Assault, gun Accused of aggravated assault with a firearm in Miami after allegedly lifting his shirt to show a gun to a motorist. Charge dropped.
2012-07-14 SEA Marshawn Lynch RB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Oakland, Calif., and taken to Santa Rita Jail on DUI charge. Resolution undetermined.
2012-07-13 JAC Odrick Ray DE Arrested Traffic warrants Pulled over in Tulsa, Okla., for speeding and arrested for having outstanding traffic warrrants. Resolution undetermined.
2012-07-10 STL Robert Quinn DE Arrested DUI Charged with driving while intoxicated and two other traffic charges. Resolution undetermined.
2012-07-08 PHI Dion Lewis RB Arrested Reckless endangerment Charged with falsely reporting a fire and reckless endangerment. Police said he and his brother tried to knock down door at hotel. Charges dismissed.
2012-07-07 MIN Adrian Peterson RB Arrested Resisting arrest Arrested in downtown Houston on charge of resisting arrest at nightclub after he “assumed an aggressive stance.” Charge dismissed.
2012-07-07 STL Isaiah Pead RB Arrested Drugs Charged with marijuana possession in McKinney, Texas. Resolution undetermined. Suspended by league.
2012-07-02 TB Eric Wright CB Arrested DUI Charged with felony drunk driving in Los Angeles after being involved in an accident that caused an injury. District attorney declined to prosecute.
2012-07-01 CLE Kiante Tripp DT Arrested Burglary, gun Arrested in Georgia on suspicion of felony burglary after allegedly having gun and threatening people in an apartment. Resolution undetermined.
2012-06-23 DET Aaron Berry CB Arrested DUI Arrested on suspicion of drunk driving in Harrisburg, Pa., after slamming into parked cars. Diversion program.
2012-06-10 NYG David Diehl OT Arrested DUI Arrested on DUI charge in Queens, N.Y. after hitting parked cars. Blood-alcohol content of .18. Pleaded guilty to aggravated DUI, license restrictions, $1,200 in restitution.
2012-06-03 JAC Justin Blackmon WR Arrested DUI Arrested in Stillwater, Okla.,on DUI charge after traffic stop. Blood-alcohol three times the limit. Pleaded guilty, $500 fine, deferred sentence of one year.
2012-06-02 MIN Jerome Felton FB Arrested DUI Arrested on DUI charge in drive-thru lane at McDonald’s. Resolution undetermined.
2012-05-27 DET Nick Fairley DT Arrested DUI Arrested on DUI charge and eluding police in Mobile, Ala., after being pulled over for going 100 mph. Pleaded guilty in apparent plea deal that later came under question by judge.
2012-04-28 MIN Caleb King RB Arrested Assault Accused of third-degree assault in incident that put another man in the hospital with a skull fracture. Resolution undetermined. Released from team after the weekend.
2012-04-26 WAS Brandon Meriweather S Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, charged with drunken driving after failing sobriety test in Arlington County, Virginia. Pleaded no contest, $300 fine, 180-day suspended jail sentence.
2012-04-07 OAK Darrius Heyward-Bey WR Arrested DUI Pulled over on Bay Bridge in California, charged with DUI. Pleaded no contest, three years’ probation, DUI classes.
2012-04-03 DET Nick Fairley DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Mobile, Ala., charged with marijuana possession after police found marijuna cigarettes. Charge dropped after he passed drug test.
2012-03-30 MIA Koa Misi LB Arrested Battery Police said he punched a man in the eye in California in 2011. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanor, three years’ probation.
2012-03-17 Free agent Samson Satele C Arrested Disorderly conduct Arrested at a shopping complext in Hawaii. He later signed with Indianapolis. Resolution undetermined.
2012-03-12 DET Mikel Leshoure RB Cited Drugs Charged with marijuana possession after traffic stop in Michigan, his second in a month. Pleaded guilty, $575 fine
2012-02-26 SEA Jarriel King OT Arrested Sex Charged with having forcible sex with woman in South Carolina who said she was intoxicated. Resolution undetermined. Released by team after it learned of the arrest.
2012-02-25 SEA Leroy King LB Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession in Atlanta and report of strong odor coming from apartment. Charge dropped.
2012-02-23 JAC Nate Collins DT Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession after traffic stop in Warrenton, Va. Police pulled him over because of his tinted windows. Resolution undetermined.
2012-02-18 DET Mikel Leshoure RB Cited Drugs Pulled over for speeding, charged with marijuana possession in Benton Township, Mich. Pleaded guilty to marijuana use, $485 fine.
2012-02-13 CHI J.T. Thomas LB Arrested Drugs Pulled over for going wrong way on one-way street. Police say they found marijuana. Resolution undetermined.
2012-02-08 SF Ray McDonald DE Arrested Outstanding warrant Pulled over in Sunnyvale, Calif., arrested on outstanding warrant from drunken driving case in 2010. Resolution undetermined.
2012-02-05 CIN Rey Maualuga LB Arrested Assault Charged with misdemeanor assault after bar employee said Maualuga hit him in the face. Charged dropped after private mediation.
2012-02-01 DEN Knowshon Moreno RB Arrested DUI Charged with drunken driving after being pulled over for speeding. License plate reportedly was “SAUCED.” Resolution undetermined.
2012-01-27 SF Aldon Smith LB Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving in Miami Beach. Resolution undetermined.
2012-01-23 DET Johnny Culbreath OT Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession at Comfort Inn in South Carolina. Convicted, paid $412 fine.
2012-01-19 CIN Jerome Simpson WR Indicted Drugs Accused of marijuana trafficking after 2.5 pounds of it were delivered to his home the previous September. Resolution undetermined.
2011-12-30 MIN Benny Sapp CB Arrested Assault Accused of fifth-degree assault and careless driving after dispute with security guard who tried to detain him at hospital. Resolution undetermined.
2011-12-14 CHI Sam Hurd WR Arrested Drugs Accused of accepting a kilogram of cocaine from undercover officer and trying to set up drug distribution network. Pleaded guilty to conspiracy to possess drugs with intent to distribute. Awaiting sentence.
2011-11-30 OAK Rolando McClain LB Arrested Assault, gun Accused of discharging a gun within city limits of Decatur, Ala., and putting a gun next to a man’s head in fight. Resolution undetermined.
2011-11-25 GB Erik Walden LB Arrested Domestic violence Jailed after complaint of felony assault against live-in girlfriend. Resolution undetermined.
2011-11-02 CAR Lawrence Wilson LB Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding, accused of having 11 grams of marijuana. Resolution undetermined.
2011-11-01 NE Julian Edelman WR Arrested Assault Accused of touching a woman inappropriately at a nightclub on Halloween night. Charges dropped.
2011-10-22 MIN Chris Cook CB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic assault after neighbor called 911 to report argument. Acquitted. Team suspended without pay him after arrest.
2011-10-14 DEN Ryan McBean DT Arrested Stalking Accused of felony stalking, ordered to cease contact with victim. Resolution undetermined.
2011-10-01 GB Johnny Jolly DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over, accused of possessing narcotic containing codeine and tamperting with evidence to conceal it. Resolution undetermined.
2011-09-20 MIN Tyrell Johnson S Arrested DUI Accused of fourth-degree drunken driving with blood-alcohol content of 0.12. Resolution undetermined.
2011-09-02 DAL Kevin Ogletree WR Arrested Outstanding warrant Pulled over for speeding in Coppell, Texas. Police found two previous traffic violations unresolved. Paid $597 bond, car towed.
2011-08-07 MIN Rhett Bomar QB Arrested DUI Accused of third-degree drunk driving in Mankato, Minn. Resolution undetermined.
2011-08-02 DEN Matt Prater K Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving after allegedly backing his Chevy Trailblazer into parked car and fleeing the scene. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-24 BUF Paul Hubbard WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving after his car hit a police officer. Blood-alcohol content measured at 0.08. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-17 CIN Cedric Benson RB Arrested Assault Accused of misdemeanor assault after incident with former male roommate in Travis County, Texas. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-17 IND Jerry Hughes DE Arrested Public intoxication Taken into custody around 2:30 a.m. at nightclub in Dallas with TCU teammates. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-14 CIN Marvin White S Arrested Assault Accused of disturbing the peace and being verbally abusive at his child’s day care center. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-10 CIN Adam Jones CB Arrested Alcohol Accused of disorderly conduct while intoxicated and resisting arrest at bar in Cincinnati. Resolution undetermined.
2011-07-09 PIT Hines Ward WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Georgia after being pulled over about 2:30 a.m. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving in plea deal. One year probation, $2,000 fine.
2011-06-29 TEN Kenny Britt WR Surrendered Outstanding warrant Turned himself in on two outstanding warrants that say he provided inaccurate information on driver’s license applications. Resolution undetermined.
2011-06-19 PHI Akeem Jordan LB Arrested Assault Accused of assasult and battery after incident at bar in Harrisonburg, Va. Resolution undetermined.
2011-06-18 DET Corey Williams DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Arkansas for crossing center line, accused of drunk driving. Breath test measured his blood-alcohol level at .10. His attorney alleged racial profiling. Charge dropped by judge, according to court clerk.
2011-06-16 GB Brandon Underwood CB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of pushing wife to the ground and ripping necklace from her neck in Green Bay. Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct, $767.50 in fines. NFl suspended two games. Released in September.
2011-06-16 SEA Raheem Brock DE Arrested Theft Accused of walking out on $27 restaurant tab in Philadelphia. He said they canceled order before food arrived. Acquitted.
2011-06-09 IND Javarris James RB Arrested Drugs Accused of misdemeanor marijuana possession in Florida. Resolution undetermined.
2011-06-08 TEN Kenny Britt WR Arrested Drugs Accused of resisting arrest in New Jersey after police suspected him of trying to hide a marijuana cigar. Resolution undetermined.
2011-05-22 CHI Garrett Wolfe RB Arrested Theft Accused of refusing to pay bill at Miami nightclub, resisting arrest and assaulting police. Charges dropped.
2011-05-09 TB Alex Magee DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over for driving with an expired tag on his 2009 black Dodge Charger, accused of marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined.
2011-05-06 SD Antwan Applewhite LB Arrested DUI Pulled over around 2:30 a.m. in San Diego, suspected of drunken driving. Resolution undetermined.
2011-04-26 WAS Albert Haynesworth DT Indicted Sex Charged with misdemeanor sexual abuse for allegedly fondling the breast of a worker in a Washington restaurant. Pleaded no contest to simple assault.
2011-04-19 ATL William Moore S Arrested License Accused of speeding, driving with a suspended license and failure to appear in court for a previous ticket. Resolution undetermined.
2011-04-12 TEN Kenny Britt WR Arrested Obstruction Accused of eluding police with car chase in his hometown of Bayonne, N.J., speeding and obstruction. Pleaded guilty to careless driving, $478 fine.
2011-04-04 KC Mike Vrabel LB Arrested Theft Accused of stealing alcoholic beverages from casino deli in Florence, Ind. Diversion agreement. Charge dropped if he stays out of trouble for 180 days.
2011-04-03 OAK Louis Murphy WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Gainesville, Fla., accused of possessing bottle of Viagra for which he had no prescription, resisting arrest. Resolution undetermined.
2011-03-29 TB Aqib Taliq CB Warrant Gun Police near Dallas issued warrant accusing him of firing gun near head of sister’s boyfriend. Charge dropped.
2011-03-26 PHI Jason Peters OT Arrested Disturbing the peace Accused with playing loud music, disturbing the peace in Shreveport, La. Resolution undetermined.
2011-03-25 GB Johnny Jolly DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Houston around 12:45 a.m., accused of having bottles of codeine, charged with intent to distribute. Charge dropped but pleaded guilty to 2008 drug charge, probation, jail time, drug treatment.
2011-03-19 DAL Bryan McCann CB Arrested Public intoxication Accused of public intoxication by Dallas police, which he denied. Resolution undetermined.
2011-03-17 OAK Mario Henderson OT Arrested Gun Pulled over in Fort Myers, Fla., and accused of carrying a concealed weapon an d playing music too loud. Resolution undetermined.
2011-03-12 MIN Chris Cook CB Arrested Gun Accused of brandishing a gun during an argument in Virginia with a neighbor. Charge dropped.
2011-03-04 PHI King Dunlap OT Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of reckless driving and disorderly conduct in Nashville after allegedly driving his Escalade onto sidewalk near arena. Resolution undetermined.
2011-02-12 SD Legedu Naanee WR Arrested Public intoxication Accused of public intoxication, resisting arrest after refusing orders to stay away from homicide scene in Indianapolis. Resolution undetermined.
2011-02-12 OAK Michael Bush RB Arrested DUI Suspected of drunk driving in Clarksville, Ind. Resolution undetermined.
2011-02-09 TEN Kenny Britt WR Charged Theft Accused of theft by deception after allegedly not paying two bail bonds companies in New Jersey on behalf of his friend. Resolution undetermined.
2011-02-02 WAS Albert Haynesworth DT Charged Assault Accused of punching motorist in Virginia in traffic altercation after the alleged victim made gesture at Haynesworth for tailgaiting. Charge dropped after settlement with alleged victim.
2011-01-31 MIN Everson Griffen DE Arrested Assault Pulled over near USC campus, subdued by Taser after allegedly assaulting officer during traffic stop. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge, $10,000 fine, three years probation.
2011-01-29 MIN Everson Griffen DE Arrested Public intoxication Accused of being drunk in public in Hollywood, Calif. Charge dropped.
2011-01-17 DEN Laurence Maroney RB Arrested Drugs, gun Pulled over in St. Louis, accused of unlawful possession of guns and drugs with other men. Acquitted.
2010-12-27 WAS Joe Joseph DT Arrested DUI Police responded to report of single-car accident, accused him of drunk driving around 3 a.m. Resolution undetermined.
2010-12-26 BAL Sergio Kindle LB Arrested DUI Pulled over on suspicion of drunk driving in Jessup, Md. Measured .17 on a Breathalyzer test. Pleaded guilty, two years probation, five days in a private facility.
2010-12-20 DEN Kevin Alexander LB Arrested Domestic violence Girlfriend accused him of shoving and striking her in the face. Charged with battery and assault. Charges dropped for a lack of evidence. Alexander cut by Broncos a day after arrest.
2010-12-13 TB Geno Hayes LB Arrested Disorderly conduct Charged after altercation outside Tampa nightclub in which police used stun gun on him. Pleaded no contest to trespassing, with ajudication withheld. Disorderly conduct charge dropped. Paid $265 in court costs.
2010-12-09 DEN Perrish Cox CB Arrested Sexual assault Accused of impregnanting woman after she passed out at his home. Acquitted.
2010-11-27 NO Will Smith DE Arrested Domestic violence Charged after police in Lafayette, La., observed him allegedly arguing with his wife and pulling her by the hair. Diversion program. Charges were dropped when Smith completed community service and counseling.
2010-11-19 TB Mike Williams WR Arrested DUI Pulled over on suspicion of drunken driving in Hillsborough County, Fla., despite Breathalyzer test showing legal blood-alcohol level. Charges dropped when urine test came back clean.
2010-11-13 SEA Raheem Brock DE Arrested DUI Pulled over by University of Washington police on suspicion of drunken driving. Measured .13 on a Breathalyzer test. Resolution undetermined.
2010-11-12 DEN D.J. Williams LB Arrested DUI Pulled over on suspicion on drunk driving in Denver at 2:40 a.m. Also cited for driving without headlights. Convicted of DUI and sentenced to 30 days home arrest.
2010-10-24 DEN Elvis Dumervil LB Arrested Assault Cited for assault, disturbing the peace after alleged altercation with parking lot attendant at Invesco Field after he forgot his credentials. Charges dimissed five days before scheduled trial.
2010-10-23 TB Jerramy Stevens TE Arrested Drugs Pulled over and cited for possession of marijuana, of which 38 grams were found in the car. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team two days after arrest.
2010-10-20 IND Pat McAfee P Arrested Alcohol Cited after he took a late-night swim in a canal and told police, “I am drunk.” Officers said he had a .15 blood-alcohol content. Diversion program in which he attended eight hours of community service and paid $298 fee. Suspended one game by the Colts.
2010-10-05 CAR Dwayne Jarrett WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding after 2 a.m. and arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team same day of arrest.
2010-09-25 NE Bret Lockett DB Arrested Disorderly conduct Cited after police said he ignored their instructions to stay away from a club in Providence, R.I., that was filled to capactiy. Diversion program, charge dismissed after three months without incident.
2010-09-21 NYJ Braylon Edwards WR Arrested DUI Pulled over at 5:15 a.m. because police say his windows were too tinted; smelled of alcohol and blood-alcohol measured .16 Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor. Deal included $500 fine, driver’s license suspended for six months, entered into substance-abuse program.
2010-09-03 IND Fili Moala DT Arrested DUI Pulled over at 2:31 a.m. for speeding and cited with suspicion of driving under the influence. Blood-alcohol measured .10. Convicted of misdemeanor operating a vehicle while intoxicated with a blood-alcohol count of .08 to .15 and public intoxication. Sentenced to 180 days probation.
2010-08-08 CLE Gerard Lawson DB Arrested DUI Cited with suspicion of driving under the influence after hitting a parked car and leaving the scene. Pleaded no contest and sentenced to one year of probation, 72 hours of an alternative to jail program, 20 hours of community work service and $500 fine. Also had license suspended for six months.
2010-08-08 IND John Gill DT Arrested Alcohol Cited after found in a ditch on the side of the road, barefoot and slurring his speech. Charged dropped. Gill entered treatment facility.
2010-08-07 WAS Fred Davis TE Arrested Reckless driving Cited with reckless driving, driving 20 mph over the speed limit. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of speeding, $75 fine.
2010-08-04 TEN Kenny Britt WR Cited License Pulled over in Nashville for windows in Camaro tinted too dark, then cited for misdemeanor driving without a valid license. Resolution undetermined.
2010-07-24 STL Jerome Murphy CB Arrested License Pulled over in Tampa for what said police said was loud music, charged with misdemeanor of driving without a valid license. Resolution undetermined.
2010-07-03 SEA Quinton Ganther RB Arrested DUI Pulled over on suspicion for two misdemeanor counts of driving under the influence in Sacramento. State limit for BAC is .08. Resolution undetermined.
2010-07-01 TEN Chris Simms QB Arrested DUI,drugs Charged in New York City with driving while on drugs (marijuana) with his pregnant wife in the car. Acquitted in May 2011
2010-07-01 CLE Robaire Smith DE/DT Arrested Gun Charged for November 2009 incident of possessing a firearm (Belgian 5.7) in Flint (Mich.) Bishop Airport, in his bag Resolution undetermined.
2010-06-29 CIN Cedric Benson RB Arrested Assault Charged with misdemeanor assault for a May 30 incident in Austin, Texas, where he allegedly punching a bar employee in the face. Pleaded no contest, 20-day jail sentence, $4,000 fine.
2010-06-16 TEN Derrick Morgan DE Arrested License Pulled over in northwest Georgia for speeding, charged with driving with a suspended license. Resolution undetermined.
2010-06-13 TEN Vince Young QB Cited Assault Accused of getting into a fight at a Dallas strip club and left before police arrived. Resolution undetermined.
2010-06-12 SF Ray McDonald DE Arrested DUI Pulled over in his black BMW when the California Highway Patrol clocked him at 94 mph in a 65-mph zone, given field sobriety test. Resolution undetermined.
2010-06-10 GB Brandon Underwood CB Arrested Sexual assault Charged with prostitution/non-marital sexual intercourse after two women alleged he sexually assaulted them in Lake Delton, Wis. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanor count of soliciting a prostitute, $379 fine.
2010-05-26 MIA Phillip Merling DE Arrested Domestic violence Charged with aggravated battery against his pregnant girlfriend in Weston, Fla. Charges dropped after girlfriend stopped cooperating with authorities.
2010-05-24 SD Kevin Ellison S Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding, charged with suspicion of possessing a controlled substance — 100 Vicodin pills — in Redondo Beach, Calif. Pleaded guilty to possession of controlled substance, charged later dropped through diversion program.
2010-05-23 NO Harry Coleman S Arrested Battery Charged with misdemeanor simple battery after allegedly shoving someone out of the way upon leaving tribal casino in Louisiana. Resolution undetermined.
2010-05-16 TB Mario Urrutia WR Arrested License Charged with non-resident driver’s license violation by Hillsborough (Fla.) County deputies. Resolution undetermined.
2010-05-08 DEN Ronald Fields DT Arrested Gun Pulled over in Houston upon witness seeing Fields waving a gun at a club, then driving off, charged with misdemeanor. Resolution undetermined.
2010-05-07 WAS Fred Davis TE Cited License Charged with driving with a suspended license, falsely identifying himself to police in Loudon County (Va.). Pleaded guilty, 30-day suspended sentence, fined $2,500
2010-05-04 CIN Maurice Purify WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Charged with misdemeanor disorderly conduct after scuffle at a Newport, Ky., nightclub. Charges dropped; one-game NFL suspension under personal conduct policy
2010-04-17 CLE Chris Jennings RB Arrested Assault Accused of hitting a bouncer outside a Cleveland nightclub. Never charged.
2010-04-10 SEA Leroy Hill LB Arrested Domestic violence Charged with investigation of assault in the fourth degree/domestic violence from dispute with girlfriend in Issaquah, Wash. Diversion program, 18-month probation, treatment program.
2010-04-07 WAS Fred Davis TE Arrested License Pulled over for speeding, found to be driving under a suspended/revoked license. Pleaded guilty, 10-day suspended sentence, $2,500 fine, driver’s license suspended 90 days.
2010-04-01 CLE Shaun Rogers DT Arrested Gun Charged at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport on felony count for carrying a handgun in his carry-on bag. Diversion program of 12 months, 10-hour weapons course, 40 hours community service, NFL fine.
2010-03-27 ARI Joey Porter LB Arrested DUI, assault Suspected of DUI and charged with assaulting an officer, resisting arrest after trying to help a friend who had been pulled over. Charges dropped; prosecutor did not believe jury would find Porter guilty beyond a reasonable doubt.
2010-03-19 MIA Ronnie Brown RB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Atlanta for failing to use a turn signal, then charged with DUI with reported blood-alcohol level at 0.158. Resolution undetermined.
2010-03-13 GB Spencer Havner TE Arrested DUI Arrested in Grass Valley, Calif., after crashing his motorcycle; taken to hospital, and found to be under the influence. Charges dropped, not enough evidence
2010-02-20 MIA Will Allen CB Arrested DUI Charged in Miami Beach after tried to get through police roadblock. Blood alcohol measured at .152 and .167. Resolution undetermined.
2010-02-19 WAS Byron Westbrook CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Waldorf, Md., after his Mercedes crossed the center line several times, suspected of drunken driving. Acquitted by jury in June 2010.
2010-02-06 MIA Tony McDaniel DT Arrested Domestic violence Charged with misdemeanor battery at Davie, Fla., home, after shoving his girlfriend, whose head hit the pavenment. Pleaded no contest to amended charge of disorderly conduct, six months probation, counseling. NFL suspended him one game.
2010-02-02 DAL Deon Anderson FB Arrested Gun Accused of pulling loaded gun a man in dispute in Addison, Texas, also having outstanding traffic warrants. Resolution undetermined.
2010-01-30 KC Michael Richardson CB Arrested Alcohol One of hundreds charged with being in possession of an open alcohol container, at the Gasparilla Parade in Tampa. Resolution undetermined.
2010-01-29 CIN Rey Maualuga LB Arrested DUI Charged with drunk driving in Covington, Ky., after police said he struck two parked vehicles and parking meter. Blood-alcohol .157. Pleaded guilty, suspended seven-day sentence, two days’ probation. NFL fined him for two games.
2010-01-18 WAS Chad Rinehart OT Arrested Public intoxication Charged after police in Cedar Falls, Iowa, say he was pulling on the locked door outside a bar and refused a breath test. Found guilty by a judge, paid $195 fine
2010-01-17 SD Vincent Jackson WR Arrested License Pulled over for playing loud music, cited for driving with a suspended license and expired tags. Pleaded guilty to knowingly driving with suspended license , 80 hours community service, fined under $1,000.
2010-01-15 TEN Kenny Britt WR Arrested License Pulled over in Glen Ridge., N.J., an had three outstanding traffice warrants. Paid $865, released.
2010-01-10 TB Jermaine Phillips S Arrested Domestic violence Charged with third-degree felony domestic battery for allegedly strangling his wife at home in Tampa after she called 911. Diversion program.
2010-01-01 IND Taj Smith WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in Indianapolis after car crossed lane divider and was above 30 mph speed limit. Failed field sobriety, breath tests. Resolution undetermined.
2009-12-29 NO Bobby McCray DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding in New Orleans at 4:30 a.m., refused breathalyzer test, accused of drunk driving, driving without registration. Resolution undetermined.
2009-12-10 ATL Jonathan Babineaux DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for a traffic violation in Gwinnett County, Ga., accused of marijuana possession. Pleaded no contest in misdemeanor plea deal, $1,500 fine, one year of probation.
2009-11-30 CAR Jon Beason LB Arrested Assault Accused of aggravated assault after a confrontation with a man in Charlotte strip club. Charges dropped.
2009-11-16 ATL Eric Weems WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in Dekalb County, Georgia, accused of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined.
2009-10-27 TB Marcus Johnson OG Arrested DUI Suspected of DUI after being found asleep in a Chevy Impala at 4 a.m. in Tampa, Fla., refused breath tests. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team less then 12 hours later.
2009-10-26 CLE Braylon Edwards WR Arrested Assault Charged with assault after allegedly punching a friend of LeBron James inside a Cleveland nightclub. Pleaded no contest to aggravated disorderly conduct, 180-day suspended sentence, $1,000 fine.
2009-10-18 PIT Jeff Reed K Arrested Alcohol Cited for resisting arrest, public intoxication in confrontation with police outside a Pittsburgh bar with teammate Matt Spaeth. Diversion program, 40 hours community service, then cleared.
2009-10-18 PIT Matt Spaeth TE Cited Public urination Cited for public urination outside a Pittsburgh bar. Teammate Jeff Reed was arrested as part of the same incident. Resolution undetermined.
2009-10-13 CHI Lance Louis OT Arrested Assault Charged with assault after beating a teammate in a meeting room while enrolled at San Diego State in November of 2008. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor battery, 40 hours of community service, 12 hours anger management, three years probation.
2009-10-05 MIA Will Billingsley CB Arrested Domestic violence Charged with assault and nonviolently resisting arrest after argument over shoes with his girlfriend, who was found with scratches on her upper arm and neck. Case dropped after girlfriend said she wouldn’t pursue it. Cut by team two months later.
2009-09-07 DEN Richard Quinn TE Arrested Domestic violence Live-in girlfriend accused him of shaking her to the ground and taking away the phone during an argument in Denver. Charges dropped.
2009-09-06 SD Shawne Merriman LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of battery and false imprisonment after allegedly choking and restraining his girlfriend, television personality Tila Tequila, in San Diego. Charges dismissed less than a week later.
2009-08-31 NO Usama Young S Arrested Failure to appear Stopped for speeding in New Orleans, arrested for failing to appear in traffic court for allegedly parking in a handicap spot. Resolution undetermined.
2009-08-30 MIN Cedric Griffin CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after voluntarily pulling, possibly because he felt he was too impaired to drive in Minnesota. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor, two years probation, two days community service, $300 fine.
2009-08-23 BAL Tony Fein LB Arrested Assault Accused of assault after a confrontation with an officer in Baltimore who was investigating report of possible gun being passed around his group. Died in October 2009 before trial. Suspected gun turned out to be phone.
2009-08-21 TEN Chris Davis WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding in Nashville after 2 a.m., suspected of drunken driving. Consented to a breathalyzer test that measured 0.11 in blood alcohol content. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team a few days after arrest.
2009-08-20 TB Aqib Talib CB Arrested Assault Accused of battery and resisting arrest after allegedly hitting a cab driver in Tampa in the neck and ear. Diversion program, anger management course, civil settlement with driver.
2009-08-05 PHI Juqua Parker DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over for a traffic violation in Bethlehem, Pa., accused of marijuana possession as passenger in the car. Charges dropped after district attorney said the officer had no right to search the car.
2009-06-28 HOU Vonta Leach FB Charged Assault Charged with simple assault in July for an alleged confrontation with a man in a restaurant near Leach’s hometown of Lumberton, North Carolina. Resolution undetermined.
2009-06-20 SEA Owen Schmitt FB Arrested DUI Suspected of drunken driving after being seen by an officer weaving and following cars too closely in Black Diamond, Wa. Blood-alcohol measured at 0.151. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, one-year suspended jail sentence, 24 hours community service, $2,130 fines and fees.
2009-05-26 ATL Quinn Ojinnaka OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of tossing his wife down the stairs and throwing her out of the house after an argument over him contacting a girl on Facebook in Gwinnett County, Ga. Diversion program. NFL suspended one game.
2009-05-24 MIA Randy Starks DE Arrested Assault Arrested after allegedly swerving his vehicle to strike a police officer on foot and pin him up against another car. Charged with aggravated battery in Miami, Fl. Convicted of misdemeanor traffic violation, eight-hour traffic course, $219 fine.
2009-05-17 HOU Brandon Walker OG Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Norman, Okla., where he played college football. Resolution undetermined. Released by team two days later.
2009-05-14 BUF Corey McIntyre FB Arrested Indecent exposure Arrested two months after allegedly fondling himself outside of a woman’s home in Port St. Lucie, Fla. Charges dropped.
2009-05-10 HOU Brandon Walker OG Arrested Outstanding Warrant Warrant issued in Norman, Okla., after he failed to pay a ticket for driving without proper registration and proof of insurance. Resolution undetermined.
2009-05-06 TB Anthony Mix WR Arrested Sex Turned himself in after alledgedly having sex with a 15 year-old girl; the girl’s mother turned him in after seeing text messages between the two. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team day of arrest.
2009-05-03 NO Biren Ealy WR Arrested Alcohol Charged with lewd coduct, obscenity and disturbing the peace. Accused of being drunk, urinating in public and exposing himself to women with teammate. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team two days after arrest.
2009-05-03 NO Kolomona Kapanui TE Arrested Alcohol Charged with lewd conduct, obscenity and disturbing the peace. Accused of being drunk, urinating in public and exposing himself to women with teammate. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team two days after arrest.
2009-04-25 SD Shaun Phillips LB Cited Battery Cited for misdemeanor battery after a security guard at a San Diego hotel said Phillips punched him. Never charged. Civil settlement with guard.
2009-04-11 BUF Donte Whitner DB Arrested Disorderly conduct Police said they used Taser to subdue him at Cleveland club, charged him aggravated disorderly conduct and resisting arrest. Diversion program that included meetings with a probation officer for three months. Charges then dropped.
2009-04-05 CIN Leon Hall CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after being pulled over after 3 a.m. In Ohio. Breath test showed blood-alcohol content of 0.149. Pleaded guilty to reckless operation of a vehicle, 30-day suspended jail sentence, 64 hours community service, $250 fine.
2009-04-01 CLE Donte Stallworth WR Arrested DUI, manslaughter Accused of striking and killing a pedestrian with his car in Miami March 14. Blood-alcohol content measured .126. Charged with DUI manslaughter. Pleaded guilty, 24 days in jail, two years of house arrest, 1,000 hours of community service. NFL suspended for 2009.
2009-03-21 OAK Cornell Green OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of slamming the mother of his two children against wall and striking her arm with mop handle. Arrested at Tampa airport after incident. Diversion program, classes, court costs.
2009-03-13 KC David Macklin CB Arrested DUI Pulled over after 3 a.m. in Newport News, Va., accused of drunken driving. Convicted, six-month suspended sentence, $250 fine. The team cut him five days after arrest.
2009-03-11 WAS Albert Haynesworth DT Indicted Reckless driving Grand jury indicted him on charges of misdemeanor reckless driving and expired registration. Accused of causing Dec. 13 accident that caused another motorist to crash. Pleaded no contest, three months of probation, 25 hours community service.
2009-03-09 JAC Matt Jones WR Arrested Alcohol Accused of violating terms of previous plea deal in cocaine case. He tested positive for alcohol consumption, leading to his arrest in Arkansas. Found guilty, six days in jail.
2009-03-01 DEN Brandon Marshall WR Arrested Domestic dispute Accused of disorderly conduct in Atlanta after fight with fiance. Charges dropped.
2009-02-14 PIT Jeff Reed K Cited Disorderly conduct Police said he broke towel dispenser in convenience store after finding it out of towels, also used profane language at employee. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct and criminal mischief, fined $543.50. Arrested again in October 2009.
2009-02-13 JAC Gerald Sensabaugh S Arrested License, guns Accused of driving with a suspended license in Kingsport, Tenn. He had three guns in his Bentley, but apparently had a permit for them. Resolution undetermined.
2009-02-11 BUF Marshawn Lynch RB Arrested Guns, drugs Police in Culver City, Calif., said they checked car without tags and smelled marijuana, then found gun in trunk, plus marijuana cigarettes. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor gun charge, 80 hours community service, three years probation. No drug charge. NFL suspended him three games.
2009-02-11 JAC Reggie Williams WR Arrested DUI, drugs Pulled over in Houston at about 2 a.m., charged with drunken driving and possession of .97 grams of marijuana. Charges dropped.
2009-02-08 IND Darrell Reid DT Arrested Disorderly conduct Police said he refused to leave nightclub parking lot in Indianapolis, accused of disorderly conduct and trespassing. Resolution undetermined.
2009-02-05 KC Michael Merritt TE Arrested Drugs Police officer in Orlando said he saw him with a marijuana cigarette, leading to marijuana possession charge. Resolution undetermined. Released from team later that month.
2009-02-02 SF Roderick Green LB Arrested Guns, drugs, reckless driving Pulled over in Brenham, Texas, accused of unlawfully carrying a weapon, marijuana possession, reckless driving and interfing with police, all misdemeanors. Resolution undetermined.
2009-02-01 SD Jamal Williams DT Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunken driving but blood-alcohol content measured at under the legal limit of .08. Pleaded guilty to a lane-change violation and speeding, required to take traffic safety class.
2009-01-24 SEA Leroy Hill LB Arrested Drugs Accused of possessing less than an ounce of marijuana after being found asleep behind the wheel of his car at an intersection in Georgia. Pleaded guilty to marijuana possession, 12 months of probation, $500 fine.
2009-01-16 NO Jonathan Vilma LB Arrested Reckless driving Miami police said he resisted arrest after being spotting swerving his car and running red light. Charges dropped. Vilma agreed to give $1,000 to hospital trauma center.
2009-01-10 DAL Anthony Spencer LB Arrested Alcohol, disorderly conduct Bouncer at Indianapolis nightclub told police Spencer tried to punch him. Accused of public intoxication, disorderly conduct. Resolution undetermined.
2009-01-06 SD Vincent Jackson WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding and weaving, failed sobriety tests in San Diego, accused of drunken driving in 2008 GMC Sierra. Sentenced to four days in jail and five years of probation
2009-01-01 BUF Ko Simpson S Arrested Interfering with police Accused of hindering police in Rock Hill, S.C., when one of his friends was being arrested at bar. Police said Simpson proclaimed he was “worth millions.” Diversion program, at least 50 hours of community service.
2008-12-28 STL Gary Stills LB Arrested Child support Civil warrant issued for unpaid child support. Resolution undetermined.
2008-12-21 JAC Travarous Bain CB Arrested License Pulled over for speeding in Florida, accused of having suspended or revoked license. Resolution undetermined. Released from team a few days after arrest.
2008-12-07 CAR Jeremy Bridges OG Arrested Assault Accused of spraying champagne on restaurant patrons and making threats in Charlotte. Dropped.
2008-12-01 NYG Plaxico Burress WR Surrendered Gun Accidentally shot himself in thigh at New York club and did not have a permit for the pistol. Pleaded guilty to lesser weapons charge, two-year prison sentence, NFL suspension.
2008-11-29 NYJ Shaun Ellis DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Hanover, N.J., charged with marijuana possession, speeding and driving without insurance. Resolution undetermined.
2008-11-13 NYG Kareem McKenzie OG Arrested DUI Pulled over in New Jersey, accused of drunken driving after cutting through a gas station parking lot. Resolution undetermined.
2008-10-27 KC Larry Johnson RB Surrendered Assault Charged with simple assault, accused of spitting in a woman’s face at a nightclub in Kansas City. Pleaded guilty to two counts of disturbing the peace for this and other case. Two years probation.
2008-10-23 PIT Santonio Holmes WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over because police were looking for similar car, marijuana cigars found in his car by police. Dropped after prosecutors agreed the search warrant wasn’t specific enough.
2008-10-18 TB Matt McCoy LB Arrested DUI Pulled over near his home in Tampa after 4 a.m., accused of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team day of arrest.
2008-09-28 NYG Danny Ware RB Arrested Alcohol Accused of being a pedestrian under the influence of alcohol after standing in road talking in Athens, Ga. Resolution undetermined.
2008-09-15 ATL Lawyer Milloy S Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving, speeding after game in Atlanta. Resolution undetermined.
2008-09-14 OAK Tommy Kelly DT Arrested DUI Pulled over on suspicion of drunk driving in Oakland. Resolution undetermined.
2008-09-10 IND Ed Johnson DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding near Indianapolis, charged with marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team within a day of arrest.
2008-08-30 JAC Fred Taylor RB Arrested Disorderly conduct Forced out of car at gunpoint, accused of being uncooperative during search near nightclub in Miami Beach. Charges dropped.
2008-08-30 CAR Ricardo Colclough CB Arrested DUI Accused of driving while impaired just hours before team made its final cuts. Pleaded guilty to driving while impaired, 30-day suspended sentence. Released by team within a day.
2008-08-20 HOU Jameel Cook RB Arrested Drugs Pulled over, ticketed for license and registration issues, charged with marijuana possession. Charge dropped for marijuana possession.
2008-07-20 TB Donte Nicholson S Arrested Battery Scuffled with security guards at bar, shot with stun gun, accused of resisting arrest and battery. Resolution undetermined.
2008-07-10 JAC Matt Jones WR Arrested Drugs Accused of cocaine possession after being spotted by Arkansas police in parked car cutting up cocaine-like substance. Diversion program of drug treatment. Suspended by league for three games.
2008-07-08 GB Johnny Jolly DE Arrested Drugs Accused of having mixture containing codeine in his car after arrest outside Houston nightclub. Pleaded guilty to possession in plea deal that included probation, five years of deferred adjudication.
2008-06-30 NE Willie Andrews CB Arrested Domestic violence, gun Accused of pointing gun at girlfriend’s head, assault with a deadly weapon Resolution undetermined. Cut by team a day later.
2008-06-28 BAL Derrick Martin CB Cited Drugs Cleveland airport security personnel say they found marijuana packets on him at airport. Resolution undetermined.
2008-06-22 TEN Jevon Kearse DE Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving near Vanderbilt campus around 5 a.m., refused breath test. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of reckless driving, six months of probation, restricted license.
2008-06-21 NYG Geoffrey Pope CB Arrested Assault Accused of hitting man in head with champagne bottle at club in Detroit. Charges dropped.
2008-06-18 ARI J.J. Arrington RB Arrested Disorderly conduct One of five arrested stemming from fight at nightclub in North Carolina. Resolution undetermined.
2008-06-15 NYG Ahmad Bradshaw RB Surrendered Probation violation Undisclosed probation violation stemming from undisclosed incident when he was a juvenile. Sentenced to two 30-day jail terms in Virginia.
2008-06-15 ATL Daren Stone S Arrested DUI Suspected of drunk driving in downtown Atlanta. Resolution undetermined.
2008-06-13 TEN Brandon Jones WR Arrested Gun Accused of carrying .32-caliber gun into Nashville airport. Diversion program of six months, $500 fine.
2008-06-07 CHI Cedric Benson RB Arrested DUI Accused of running a red light in Austin, Texas, suspected of drunk driving. Case dropped. Grand jury declined to indict.
2008-05-31 BUF Marshawn Lynch RB Charged Reckless driving Accused of hitting woman with his Porsche SUV in Buffalo and driving away. Woman required seven stiches for cut, plus hip bruise. Pleaded guilty to failure to exercise due care to pedestrian, license revoked, $150 fine and surcharge.
2008-05-30 JAC Gerald Sensabaugh S Arrested Reckless driving Accused of doing stunts on a motorcycle in Kingsport, Tenn. Resolution undetermined.
2008-05-20 NO Charles Grant DE Indicted Manslaughter One of several men charged in connection to shooting death of innocent pregnant woman, a bystander at club fight in Georgia. Pleaded to reduce charge of affray (public fighting), $20,000 restitution, $1,000 fine, probation.
2008-05-10 SEA Lofa Tatupu LB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Kirkland, Wash., for speeding. Police measured blood-alcohol content at .155 or more. Pleaded guilty, one day in jail, $1,255 fines and court costs.
2008-05-03 CHI Cedric Benson RB Arrested DUI Accused of boating while intoxicated and resisting arrest on Lake Travis, Texas. Case dropped. Grand jury declined to indict.
2008-05-03 ATL Michael Boley LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of becoming physical with wife during argument at home in Dacula, Ga. Diversion program. NFL suspension of one game.
2008-05-01 CIN Ahmad Brooks LB Summoned Assault Accused of punching woman in left eye during dispute with neighbor in Kentucky. Accepted mediation.
2008-04-30 Free agent Darrion Scott DE Arrested Assault Accused of putting dry-cleaning bag over 2-year-old son’s head. After leaving Minnesota, he later signed with Washington Redskins. Pleaded guilty to child endangement.
2008-04-27 NE Nick Kaczur OT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding, accused of having 202 OxyContin pills, charged with misdemeanor drug possession. Pleaded guilty to reduce charge of speeding, drug charge dropped in deal, $355 in fines and fees.
2008-04-26 DET Kalvin Pearson S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of aggravated battery of pregnant woman, domestic battery by strangulation, obstrucing officer in southwest Florida. Domestic charges dropped.
2008-04-21 IND Kenton Keith RB Arrested Alcohol Accused of refusing to leave nightclub parking lot being cleared by police, trespassing, public intoxication, disorderly conduct. Resolution undetermined.
2008-04-21 SEA Rocky Bernard DT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting his girlfriend in the head at Seattle nightclub. Diversion program, agreed to have no contact with woman for two years, domestic violence treatment.
2008-04-13 SF Donald Strickland CB Arrested Alcohol Accused of running away from police in San Jose, public intoxication and resisting arrest. Resolution undetermined.
2008-04-11 MIA Reagan Mauia RB Arrested Battery Accused of knocking a man out in restaurant parking lot in Florida. Resolution undetermined.
2008-04-03 CLE Kenny Wright CB Arrested Drugs Accused of evading arrest by trying to outrun police in Texas, misdemeanor marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined. Cut by team a month after arrest.
2008-03-31 CIN Chris Henry WR Arrested Assault Accused of punching man and throwing beer bottle out of car window. Charge dropped.
2008-03-19 PIT Cedrick Wilson WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of punching ex-girlfriend in the face, disorderly conduct at restaurant. Diversion program, anger counseling. Released by team the next day.
2008-03-16 HOU Jacoby Jones WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving while stuck in Houston traffic. Pleaded guilty, diversion program, education classes, alcohol-detection device placed in car.
2008-03-15 TEN LenDale White RB Cited Disorderly conduct Accused of property destruction, disobedience to a lawful order and resistance stemming from party in hometown of Denver. Resolution undetermined.
2008-03-11 CAR Dwayne Jarrett WR Arrested DUI Police say he ran a red light and crossed center line, accused of drunken driving with blood-alcohol content of 0.12 near Charlotte. Pleaded guilty, surrended license, 24 hours of community service, $420 in court costs.
2008-03-08 PIT James Harrison LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting his girlfriend during argument about whether to baptize his son, simple assault, mischief. Charges dropped. He also underwent anger counseling.
2008-03-06 DEN Brandon Marshall WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting his girlfriend on March 4, misdemeanor battery. Acquitted. NFL suspended him one game.
2008-03-01 CLE Kenny Wright CB Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding in Texas, charged with misdemeanor marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined.
2008-03-01 DEN Marcus Thomas DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Florida, accused of cocaine possession after police said the found the drug and gun in truck. Charges dropped.
2008-02-26 NE Kevin Faulk RB Summoned Drugs Accused of possessing marijuana cigarettes at concert in Lafayette, La. Pleaded no contest, suspended jail sentence, probation, $300 fine, substance-abuse program.
2008-02-24 MIN Bryant McKinnie OT Arrested Battery Police report said he spit on nightclub security guard in Miami after being kicked out, accused of disorderly conduct, resisting arrest. Resolution undetermined. NFL suspended him four games.
2008-02-24 KC Larry Johnson RB Charged Assault Accused of pushing a woman’s head and Kansas City nightclub. Pleaded guilty to disturbing the peace for this and other incident, two years of probation, counseling.
2008-02-19 DEN Andre Hall RB Surrendered License Arrest warrant issued stemming from driving without valid license in Florida and not appearing in court afterward. Paid $513 bond.
2008-02-19 OAK Fabian Washington CB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic battery in Florida after incident with girlfriend. Police observed “slight red marks” on her neck. Diversion program for first-time offenders. NFL suspended him one game.
2008-02-18 HOU Jerome Mathis WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of choking pregnant, common-law wife in Texas. Charges dropped.
2008-02-17 BUF Roscoe Parrish WR Arrested DUI Pulled over around 4:30 a.m. in Miami, suspected of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined.
2008-02-16 PHI Mike Patterson DT Arrested Drugs Charged with marijuana possession after police said they found it in his car in New Jersey. Convicted of careless driving.
2008-02-13 NYG Antonio Pierce LB Summoned Animal neglect Accused of neglecting pitpulls after one was found severely underweight and suffering from illness. Pleaded guilty to neglecting pets, $1,300 fine.
2008-02-05 NE Willie Andrews CB Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Massachusetts, where police said they found a half-pound of marijuana and $6,800 in cash. Pleaded guilty to marijuana possession, no prison time.
2008-02-01 NYG Adrian Awasom DE Arrested DUI Pulled over about 3:10 a.m. in ARI, accused of extreme drunken driving two days before Super Bowl there.
2008-02-01 MIA Matt Roth DE Arrested Alcohol Accused of public intoxication, refusing to leave bar in Iowa. Pleaded guilty, paid $182 fine.
2008-01-14 JAC Brent Hawkins DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunken driving near Jacksonville after telling police he had three vodkas with orange juice. Pleaded guilty, $1,000 in fines, six months of probation, license suspended.
2008-01-11 DEN Daniel Graham TE Arrested Domestic violence Suspected of harrasing former girlfriend, who told law enforcement he struck a bedpost during argument about sale of home. Charge dropped.
2007-12-29 BAL Gerome Sapp S Charged Assault Teammate Joe Maese accused him of punching him at bar. Sapp then alleged similar charge against Maese. Charge dropped after the two decided not to testify.
2007-12-29 BAL Joe Maese LS Charged Assault Teammate Gerome Sapp accused him of second-degree assault at bar after Sapp did the same to Maese. Charge dropped after the two decided not to testify.
2007-12-28 JAC Stockar McDougle OT Arrested Battery Charged with battery on person 65 or older at landscaping company in dispute over interest on bill. Resolution undetermined.
2007-12-26 MIN Darrion Scott DE Cited Drugs Pulled over in West Virginia, cited for possession of 7.1 grams of marijuana. Resolution undetermined.
2007-12-13 MIN Dwight Smith S Cited Drugs Pulled over in Minneapolis, cited for marijuana possession. Pleaded guilty to obstructing traffic, and drug charge was dropped. Fined $200.
2007-12-08 DEN Todd Sauerbrun P Cited Alcohol, assault Cited for simple assault after incident outside restaurant involving a cab driver. Police said he was taken to detox facility. Pleaded guilty to distrubing the peace, 24 hours of community service, deferred judgment.
2007-12-01 DEN Darrell Hackney QB Arrested DUI Pulled over about 2:20 a.m., accused of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined.
2007-11-29 HOU Chester Pitts OG Arrested Resisting arrest Pulled over in Houston for making illegal left turn, Pitts was accused of driving away despite police orders. Charge dropped when grand jury declined to indict.
2007-11-19 TB Cato June LB Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunk driving in Tampa. Charge dropped.
2007-11-03 JAC Justin Durant LB Arrested Alcohol, resisting arrest Police said they found him in his car on road, charged him with possession of open container and resisting arrest. PENALTY FOR CRIME? Suspended two games.
2007-11-03 JAC Richard Collier OT Arrested DUI Police said they found him asleep at the wheel in McDonald’s drive-thru window, charged him drunk driving. Blood-alcohol 0.96. Pleaded no contest, six months probation, 50 hours community service, $650 fines and costs.
2007-10-23 STL Claude Terrell OG Arrested Domestic violence Charged with assaulting his wife at hotel, where she was found with “obvious signs of physical injury.” Pleaded guilty, 30 days in jail, deferred adjudication, $1,000 fine. Team cut him within a day.
2007-10-22 DEN Brandon Marshalll WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for driving erratically in Denver, charged with drunk driving. Blood-alcohol registered at .116. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of driving while impaired, $1,100 fine, one year probation.
2007-10-12 WAS Kili Lefotu OG Arrested Alcohol, assault Charged with being drunk in public after conflict with patron at a restaurant. Also accused of assault and property destruction. Resolution undetermined.
2007-10-04 PIT Najeh Davenport RB Arrested Domestic violence In Cleveland custody dispute, he allegedly slapped and choked mother of his son, age 5. Also charged with child endangerment. Acquitted.
2007-09-29 JAC Khalif Barnes OT Arrested Reckless driving Police say he drove through a yard and crashed his Mercedes into a tree, then fled the scene. Charged with violating DUI probation. Charges dropped.
2007-09-05 CLE Leigh Bodden CB Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of failing to comply with police at Cleveland airport. Police said he drove backward on one-way street, resisted arrest and argued.. Acquitted.
2007-08-27 CHI Lance Briggs LB Charged Reckless driving Accused of crashing his Lamborghini into pole and leaving the scene of the accident. His car was discovered around 3:15 a.m. Pleaded guilty, one year court supervision, 120 hours community service.
2007-08-23 TB David Boston WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after being found asleep behind the wheel of his Range Rover on his way to the Tampa airport. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving in deal, 50 hours community service, six months probation.
2007-08-05 BUF Anthony Hargrove DE Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of breaking a police officer’s eyeglasses, resisting arrest and criminal mischief in scuffle outside nightclub. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, 200 hours community service, $300 fine.
2007-07-26 CAR Jeremy Bridges OT Arrested Assault, gun Accused of pointing a gun at a female entertainer in parking lot of strip club. Found guilty, 60-day suspended jail sentence, 60 hours community service .
2007-07-17 ATL Michael Vick QB Indicted Dogfighting Grand jury indicted him and three others as part of criminal dogfighting enterprise. Pleaded guilty, 23-month jail sentence. He served 19 months. NFL suspension until 2009.
2007-07-14 MIA Chris Chambers WR Arrested DUI Accused of driving while impaired near Charlotte, failing sobriety tests. Pleaded guilty to speeding as part of plea deal. Blood-alcohol measured at 0.6, below limit.
2007-07-05 OAK Bryant McNeal DE Arrested Outstanding warrant Pulled over in South Carolina , arrested on outstanding warrant involving defrauding a pawn broker . He allegedly sold broker a car he did not own. Resolution undetermined. Released by team a week after arrest.
2007-07-03 SD Anthony Waters LB Arrested Assault Charged with simple assault after allegedly striking a fellow motorist who threw a rock at his windshield and broke it. Resolution undetermined.
2007-07-03 MIA Kelly Campbell WR Arrested Drugs Police approached his SUV in a “known drug area” of Atlanta, confiscated marijuana and Ecstasy pill. Released by team two days after arrest.
2007-06-28 STL Claude Wroten DT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of damaging property on LSU campus in argument with girlfriend, kicking down her door. Resolution undetermined.
2007-06-23 MIA Fred Evans DT Arrested Battery, resisting arrrest Police subdued him with a taser, accused him of battery on a police officer after dispute with taxi driver in Miami Beach. Pleaded no contest to resisting arrest, battery. Fined $1,310. Team released him within week.
2007-06-22 CHI Terry Johnson DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Arizona for going 40 mph in a 25-mph zone, accused of being impaired “to the slightest degree.” Charge dropped after blood-alcohol content measured 0.72. Team released him three days after arrest.
2007-06-21 TEN Adam Jones CB Charged Coercion, gun Surrended in Las Vegas, charged with felony coercion in connection to strip club shooting that paralyzed a man. Pleaded no contest to conspiracy to commit disorderly conduct, agreed to testify against gunman. SENTENCE?
2007-06-17 GB Nick Barnett LB Arrested Battery Charged with battery after allegedly knocking out somebody’s drink and breaking cell phone at bar in Appleton, Wisc. Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct in plea deal, deferred prosecution agreement.
2007-06-17 CIN Quincy Wilson RB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of failing to heed police order to disperse from bar, where he was part of a wedding party in West Virginia. Charge dropped in exchange for staying out of trouble through Dec. 17.
2007-06-16 CLE Mike Mason WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of resisting arrest, disorderly conduct after not heeing police orders to leave club at closing time in Cleveland. Shocked with stun gun. Resolution undetermined.
2007-06-02 ATL Jimmy Williams CB Charged Drugs Accused by state police of marijuana possession in Virginia. Found guilty, license suspended six months, $146 in costs paid.
2007-05-20 DEN David Kircus WR Arrested Assault Accused of punching a man in his face at a party, breaking his facial bones. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault, two years probation, later held liable in civil case.
2007-05-20 NYJ Justin Miller CB Arrested Assault Accused of third-degree assault after swinging at a man but hitting a woman instead at New York nightclub. Resolution undetermined.
2007-05-18 CIN A.J. Nicholson LB Arrested Domestic Accused of hitting girlfriend in the eye, but she later recanted her statement, saying she hit herself with a phone. Diversion program. Charge dropped after 40 hours community service, other programs. Released by team three days later.
2007-05-10 PIT Richard Seigler LB Arrested Pimping Accused of persuading a woman to become a prostitute, living from earnings of prostitute in Las Vegas. Charges dropped in 2008. Released by team.
2007-05-09 BAL Steve McNair QB Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, charged with being owner of car driven by drunk driver. McNair was a passenger in the car he owned. Charge dropped after driver pleaded guilty to reckless driving.
2007-05-05 JAC Ahmad Carroll CB Arrested Gun, drugs Police said he told he was carrying a gun after they questioned him about incident at an Atlanta restaurant. They also said they found pink pills in car. Resolution undetermined.
2007-04-19 MIN Ronyell Whitaker CB Arrested Outstanding warrant Accused of not appearing in court for previous reckless driving incident even though his attorney was there. Police later apologized. Charge dropped.
2007-04-15 MIN Cedric Griffin CB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of getting into ruckus with bouncers and police after getting kicked out of Minneapolis club for letting his pants sag too low. Diversion program. Charge dropped if he stayed out of trouble and club, $1,000 in costs.
2007-04-01 TB Anthony Davis OT Arrested Disorderly conduct Charged with disorderly conduct in his hometown of Victoria, Va. Charge dropped.
2007-03-31 IND Darrell Reid DE Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession in New Jersey after police said they saw small bag of it in the open door of his car. Resolution undetermined.
2007-03-29 TB Lionel Gates RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting pregnant woman in argument about whether he was father of her child. Diversion program, anger management course, $3,200 in restitution.
2007-03-26 DEN Brandon Marshall WR Arrested Domestic violence Charged with false imprisonment in dispute with girlfriend, accused of hitting her car window and blocking her taxi. Diversion program. Charge dropped if he completed anger management.
2007-03-25 CAR D’Anthony Batiste OG Arrested Gun After being pulled over for dark window tint, he was accused of carrying a concealed weapon. Charge dropped
2007-03-21 CIN Chris Henry WR Cited License Accused of driving with a suspended license, seat-belt violation and making an improper turn. Vehicle impounded. Resolution undetermined.
2007-03-19 NO E.J. Kuale LB Arrested Gun, drugs Accused of marijuana and illegal possession after his car was searched by police in Baton Rouge. Released by team two days later.
2007-03-19 JAC Gerald Sensabaugh S Arrested Gun Pulled over for speeding in his BMW, he was charged with carrying a firearm without a permit in Tennessee. Charge dropped on permit.
2007-03-18 MIA Joey Porter LB Arrested Battery Accused of punching Bengals’ offensive lineman Levi Jones at a blackjack table in Las Vegas. Pleaded no contest, $1,000 fine.
2007-03-13 SEA Jerramy Stevens TE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Scottsdale, Ariz., accused of extreme drunken driving, marijuana possession. Blood-alcohol measured at .204. Guilty on three counts, 12 days in jail, $3,160 in fines.
2007-03-10 JAC Charles Sharon WR Arrested Gun, drugs Accused of stealing a Glock gun and carrying a concealed weapon in Tampa after police approached his parked car and said they smelled marijuana. Resolution undetermined.
2007-03-04 PIT Deshea Townsend CB Arrested Assault Accused of taking part in brawl in Pittsburgh bar. Charged dropped for lack of evidence.
2007-03-04 STL Dominique Byrd TE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Los Angeles, accused of drunken driving. Pleaded no contest, three years of probation, alcohol treatment.
2007-02-27 ATL Michael Vick QB Cited Trespassing Accused of fishing in a private lake in Virginia. Charged dropped.
2007-02-20 IND Dominic Rhodes RB Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, Rhodes was accused of operating a vehicle while intoxicated in Indiana. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of reckless driving, $1,000 fine, two days in jail.
2007-02-19 ATL Jonathan Babineaux DT Arrested Animal abuse Accused of killing girlfriend’s pit bull in Georgia. Charge dropped after investigation determined it was self-defense.
2007-02-10 MIA Fred Evans DT Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession in Colorado County, Texas. Pleaded no contest, $250 fine, one year deferred adjudication.
2007-01-22 CIN Johnathan Joseph CB Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Kentucky, where police accused him of marijuana possession in his backpack. Diversion program.
2007-01-06 SD Ryan Krause TE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Pacific Beach neighborhood of San Diego around 2 a.m., accused of drunken driving. Pleaded guilty, volunteer service of 32 ours, $1,756 in fines and costs.
2007-01-03 IND DeDe Dorsey RB Arrested Gun Pulled over for speeding, he is accused of carrying a pistol without a permit. Resolution undetermined.
2007-01-02 DET Ross Verba OG Arrested Outstanding warrant Pulled over for speeding in Wisconsin, he was arrested on warrant for writing bad checks in Las Vegas. Dropped after debt resolved,
2007-01-01 MIN Travis Taylor WR Arrested Assault Police used a Taser gun on him in scuffle outside Minneapolis nightclub. Accused of ignoring police orders and pushing an officer. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, $1,000 fine, 48 hours community service, 90-day suspended sentence.
2006-12-18 SD Terrance Kiel S Cited Public urination Cited for relieving himself outside a club in San Diego. Charge dropped as he pleading guilty to other drug charges.
2006-12-14 CHI Terry Johnson DT Arrested Guns In police raid, police found six unregistered guns, which they said violated his previous probation stemming from a previous gun charge. Guilty of probation violation, served two months in jail, $2,500 fine. Suspended by NFL.
2006-12-09 CIN Deltha O’Neal CB Arrested DUI Pulled over at checkpoint near Cincinnati, he was accused of drunken driving. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, $250 fine, $1,000 to MADD, three years of probation.
2006-12-04 STL Dominique Byrd TE Arrested Assault Accused of hitting nightclub patron in the face with a drinking glass and grabbign a woman’s buttocks. Pleaded guilty to two misdemeanors, two years probation, anger/alcohol treatment, $100,000 civil settlement.
2006-12-03 CIN Reggie McNeal WR Arrested Drugs, resisting arrest Accused of unruly behavior and resisting arrested after being denied entrance to Houston nightclub. Police also found sedative in his cigarette. Pleaded guilty, probation and fine.
2006-11-27 SD Cletis Gordon CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in San Diego after game against Oakland Raiders, accused of drunken driving. Charge dropped after blood-alcohol content measured below legal limit.
2006-11-25 NYJ Adrian Jones OT Arrested DUI Pulled over for lane-change violation in New Jersey, he was was accused of drunken driving. Blood-alcohol content measured at .22. Pleaded guilty to related charge. Driver’s license suspended. Fined $20,000 by team.
2006-11-19 SF Antonio Bryant WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding more than 100 mph in Lamborghini, accused of drunken driving in San Mateo, Calif. Refused sobriety test. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, one year of probation, $1,312 fine.
2006-11-14 HOU Fred Weary C Arrested Resisting arrest Pulled over in Houston, he was Tasered by police and accused of resisting arrest. He later filed a civil rights suit against the police. Charges dropped.
2006-11-11 DAL Marcus Coleman S Arrested DUI Pulled over in Irving, Texas, accused of drunken driving. Resolution undetermined.
2006-11-10 JAC Khalif Barnes OT Arrested DUI After being pulled over, he accused police officer of racism and called Jacksonville a hick town. Accused of drunken driving, he later apologized. Pleaded no contest, six months probation, 50 hours community service, $650 fines and costs.
2006-11-05 BUF Donte Whitner S Arrested Domestic dispute Accused of harrassment in a dispute at his residence involving girlfriend. Charge dropped.
2006-10-26 TEN Adam Jones CB Cited Assault Accused of spitting in a woman’s face at Nashville nightclub. Charge dropped because of inconsistent testimony.
2006-10-26 TEN Robert Reynolds LB Arrested Domestic violence Charged with domestic violence and criminal damaging in a dispute with his wife, whom he was divorcing. Pleaded guilty to smashing cell phone and punching hole in a wall, $300 fine.
2006-10-22 JAC Bobby McCray DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over, accused of reckless driving and possession of a ydrocodone, a painkiller. Pleaded no contest to reckless driving, fined $1,000.
2006-10-09 SD Markus Curry CB Arrested Domestic violence Pulled over, accused of injuring the mother of his child in the Gaslamp District of San Diego. Charge dropped after witnesses failed cooperate. Team released him hours later.
2006-10-06 DET Kenoy Kennedy S Arrested DUI Pulled over in suburban Detroit, accused of drunken driving. Blood-alcohol content measured at .16. Pleaded guilty, 18 months probation, alcohol treatment, five days community service.
2006-10-03 BAL B.J. Sams WR Arrested DUI Pulled over by police, who said they smelled alcohol, charged with drunken driving, lane violation. Acquitted on DUI charge, found guilty of lane violation, $90 fine.
2006-09-27 DEN Sam Brandon S Surrendered Violating court order Warrant issued for alleged violatoin of restraining order and bond conditions stemming from arrest. Suspended two games for previous arrests.
2006-09-26 KC Jared Allen DE Arrested DUI Accused of second drunken-driving incident in five months. Also charged with speeding Pleaded no contest. NFL suspended him two games.
2006-09-26 SD Terrance Kiel S Arrested Drugs Federal drug authorities arrested him at Chargers facility, accused him of possessing and shipping codeine cough syrup. Pleaded guilty to felony and misdemeanor charges, 100 hours volunteer work. Died in 2008 car crash.
2006-09-25 CIN Odell Thurman LB Arrested DUI Pulled over, accused of drunk driving. Pleaded no contest, $250 fine, license suspended, 90-day suspended jail sentence.
2006-09-03 SD Steve Foley LB Arrested DUI Shot by off-duty cop who followed him home and suspected him of driving drunk. Blood-alcohol level measured at .16. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor, five years probation, alcohol testing, $1,756 fine. Never played again.
2006-09-02 JAC Brian Williams CB Arrested DUI After partying, he was pulled over and accused of drunken driving. Police said he smelled of alcohol. Acquitted at trial after first pleading no contest.
2006-08-26 MIN Dwight Smith S Arrested Sex Accused of indecent conduct after being found with woman in a hotel stairwell in Minneapolis. Pleaded guilty, $1075 in fines and costs, 16 hours of community service.
2006-08-25 TEN Adam Jones CB Arrested Public intoxication Accused of being drunk, shouting profanities and arguing with a woman outside club in Tennessee. Charges dropped on the condition he stays out trouble for six months.
2006-08-15 MIN Koren Robinson WR Arrested DUI Accused of fleeing police and drunk driving after leading police on a high-speed chase in Minnesota. Pleaded no contest to felony in plea deal, 90-day jail sentence for probation violation stemming form previous DUI.
2006-08-12 TEN Randy Starks DT Surrendered Domestic violence Accused of beating fiancee, who lost some fingernails in the scuffle. Diversion program. Charge dropped if he undergoes counseling.
2006-08-06 PIT Barrett Brooks OT Arrested Evading police Police said he recklessly drove his motorcycle, drove through stop signals and led them on a chase. Resolution undetermined.
2006-08-05 CIN Eric Steinbach OG Arrested DUI Accused of drunken boating in Cincinnati, refusing breath test. Diversion program, 10 hours community service, safe boating class.
2006-07-22 CHI John Gilmore TE Arrested Drugs Accused of refusing to leave bar in Chicago. After his arrest, police said they discovered marijuana. Resolution undetermined.
2006-07-22 CIN Matthias Askew DT Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of refusing police orders, parking violations, resisting arrest and obstruction of police business in Cincinnati. He was subdued by Taser. Acquitted, he also won $500,000 award in civil lawsuit over incident. Cut by team three weeks after incident.
2006-06-25 NE Johnathan Sullivan DT Arrested Drugs, gun Pulled over after police said he ran stop signs, accused of marijuana possessions. Sullivan gave police his gun during arrest and had permit for it. Charge dropped.
2006-06-23 TEN Cortland Finnegan CB Arrested DUI Pulled over, refused breath test and accused of drunk driving. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, six-month suspended sentence, 20 hours of community service.
2006-06-22 NO Jammal Brown OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic battery in Louisiana after his wife called 911. Charge dropped.
2006-06-21 CIN Frostee Rucker DE Charged Domestic violence Accused of fighting girlfriend at party in Los Angeles. Pleaded no contest to vandalism and false imprisonment, three years of probation, 750 hours of community service.
2006-06-20 PHI Jabar Gaffney WR Charged Gun Pulled over for driving erratically in New Jersey, charged with unlawful possession of a gun. Diversion program.
2006-06-19 PIT Santonio Holmes WR Arrested Domestic violence Mother of his children called 911 and said Holmes choked her and slammed her into a door in Ohio. Charge dropped after woman was reluctant to testify.
2006-06-14 CIN Chris Henry WR Surrendered Alcohol Accused of providing alcohol to minors in hotel room he rented in Covington, Ky. Pleaded guilty, two days in jail, with rest of 90-day jail sentence suspended.
2006-06-13 IND Cato June LB Arrested Failure to appear Accused of failing to appear in court on charge of driving with a suspended license. Resolution undetermined.
2006-06-12 SD Vincent Jackson WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in San Diego, charged with drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .13. Pleaded guilty, $1,750, five years of probation.
2006-06-03 CIN Chris Henry WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in Cincinnati for speeding, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .09. Pleaded guilty to reckless operation of a vehicle, $250 fine, 30-day suspended sentence.
2006-06-01 CIN A.J. Nicholson LB Charged Theft Accused of stealing electronic equipment from former Florida State teammate. Pleaded no contest to burglary and theft, two months in a work program, two years of probation
2006-05-27 PIT Santonio Holmes WR Arrested Disorderly conduct One of hundreds of partiers arrested and accused of disorderly conduct in Miami Beach over Memorial Day weekend. Fined $250 and charge dropped.
2006-05-26 GB Cory Rodgers WR Arrested Gun Accused of firing a gun outside a nightclub in Fort Worth, Texas. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge in plea deal, 80 hours community service, 15 months of probation.
2006-05-26 DEN Karl Paymah CB Arrested DUI Police said they found him asleep behind the wheel of his Land Rover off the road near Denver while vehicle was still running. Found guilty of driving under the influence, 24 hours of community service, $542 fine, alcohol treatment.
2006-05-18 WAS Ataveus Cash WR Arrested License Pulled over in Washington, D.C., he was accused of driving without a valid license. Fined an undiclosed amount and released.
2006-05-16 MIA Keith Traylor DT Arrested DUI, drugs Pulled over in Oklahoma, accused of drunk driving, possession of a controlled substance and breaking smoke detector at jail. Sentenced to one year of probation, one year deferred sentence, paid $100 to replace smoke detector.
2006-05-13 SEA Wayne Hunter OT Arrested Assasult Police said Hunter and his brother got into a scuffle at a sports bar, knocked over a table and slammed a man down. Resolution undetermined. Released by team later that week.
2006-05-12 TEN Albert Haynesworth DT Surrendered Reckless driving Warrant issued after anoter motorist said Haynesworth tried to run him off the road with his truck. Charge dropped.
2006-05-12 CLE Reuben Droughns RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of shoving his wife to the ground and locking her outside at his home near Denver. Charge dropped.
2006-05-11 KC Jared Allen DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunk driving in Overland Park, Kansas. Diversion program that barred him from drinking, but he later got arrested again in 2006.
2006-04-23 CHI Ricky Manning CB Arrested Assault Accused of beating man at a Denny’s restaurant near the UCLA campus. Pleaded no contest, 100 hours of community service, three years of probation. NFL one-game suspension.
2006-04-21 SD Steve Foley LB Arrested Battery, alcohol Officers approached his car and accused him of resisting arrest, public intoxication and battery on officer in scuffle with police. Charge dropped.
2006-04-14 SD Shaun Phillips LB Arrested Resisting arrest Accused of obstructing police after an officer said he saw him pull a woman’s head back by her hair in downtown San Diego. Charge dropped.
2006-04-11 SEA Bryce Fisher DE Arrested Domestic violence Accused of twisting his wife’s arm behind her back in a dispute. Charge dropped.
2006-03-26 PHI Dhani Jones LB Charged Disorderly conduct Accused of not obeying a command to stop dancing in the street outside a Miami nightclub. Pleaded no contest, paid court costs and sentenced to withheld adjudictation.
2006-03-23 TEN Adam Jones CB Charged Drugs Accused of smoking marijuana after he emerged from Corvette reeking of marijuana. Officers were serving a warrant on his home in Georgia. Charge dropped.
2006-02-18 PIT Trai Essex OT Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of resisting an officer and disorderly conduct outside club in Miami. Charge dropped.
2006-02-17 GB Ahmad Carroll CB Arrested Assault Accused of slapping the hand of an officer and disorderly conduct at a bar. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanor, $700 fine.
2006-02-15 MIA Damion McIntosh OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of pushing his wife at their home and causing her to hit her head. Charge dropped for lack of evidence.
2006-02-12 CHI Terry Johnson DT Arrested Assault Accused of aggravated assault, threatening police and resisting arrest at nightclub in Chicago. Charges dropped.
2006-02-06 TEN Adam Jones CB Arrested Drugs Accused of throwing a punch at an officer and marijuana possession in Fayetteville, Ga. He had been in his parked Bentley. Pleaded no contest to obstructing police, three years of probation, $500 fine.
2006-01-28 CIN Chris Henry WR Arrested Gun Accused of raising a gun in a fight outside of a club in Orlando, Fla. The gun had been listed as stolen. Pleaded guilty to concealed weapons charge, 100 hours of community service, two years of probation.
2006-01-19 KC Greg Wesley S Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of threating to hit a bouncer at bar in Kansas City. Charge dropped after bouncer failed to testify.
2006-01-15 SEA Sean Locklear OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of grabbing his girlfriend in dispute after getting upset with her for dancing with another man at a club. Diversion program, community service.
2006-01-09 JAC Reggie Williams WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over for running a red light, accused of marijuana possession, driving with a suspended license. Diversion program, community service.
2005-12-30 DAL Terry Glenn WR Cited Disorderly conduct, alcohol Accused of public intoxication and urinating behind dumpster at fast-food restaurant. Resolution undetermined.
2005-12-15 MIN Bryant McKinnie OT Charged Disorderly conduct, sex One of four Vikings accused of taking part in “love boat” ride on Lake Minnetonka with naked dancers and sex acts, disorderly and lewd conduct. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct and being a public nuisance, 48 hours community service, $1,000 fine.
2005-12-15 CIN Chris Henry WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding in Covington, Ky., accused of marijuana possession. Pleaded guilty, $250 fine, a month in drug rehab.
2005-12-15 MIN Daunte Culpepper QB Charged Disorderly conduct, sex One of four Vikings accused of taking part in “love boat” ride on Lake Minnetonka with naked dancers and sex acts, disorderly and lewd conduct. Charge dropped.
2005-12-15 MIN Fred Smoot CB Charged Disorderly conduct, sex One of four Vikings accused of taking part in “love boat” ride on Lake Minnetonka with naked dancers and sex acts, disorderly and lewd conduct. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct and being a public nuisance, 48 hours community service, $1,000 fine.
2005-12-15 MIN Moe Williams RB Charged Disorderly conduct, sex One of four Vikings accused of taking part in “love boat” ride on Lake Minnetonka with naked dancers and sex acts, disorderly and lewd conduct. Found guilty of disorderly conduct, 30 hours community service, $300 fine.
2005-11-25 KC Lionel Dalton DT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic battery in incident with his wife on Thanksgiving. Charged dropped when she did not testify.
2005-11-09 NO Fakhir Brown CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in San Antonio, accused of driving while intoxicated. Charge dropped.
2005-11-01 CLE Reuben Droughns RB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Ohio, accused of speeding, failing breath test and drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .08. Acquitted at trial.
2005-10-31 SD Derreck Robinson DE Arrested DUI Accused of drunken driving after police heard single-car crash into center divider on interstate highway near La Mesa, Calif. Guilty, six-month suspended sentence, five years of probation, $1,850 fine.
2005-10-26 NO Courtney Watson LB Arrested DUI Pulled over in San Antonio, accused of driving while intoxicated and having an open alcohol container. Pleaded no contest, probation, $1,365 fines and costs.
2005-09-26 MIN Bryant McKinnie OT Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of getting into a scuffle and refusing to leave a gas station and deli in Minneapolis. Charge dropped.
2005-09-26 MIN Marcus Johnson OG Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of getting into a scuffle and refusing to leave a gas station and deli in Minneapolis. Charge dropped.
2005-09-23 DEN D.J. Williams LB Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Douglas County, Colo. Pleaded guilty to impaired driving, probation, 24 hours of community service.
2005-09-13 TB Torrie Cox CB Arrested DUI Pulled over after police said his 2005 Dodge Magnum was drifting. Police said they smelled alcohol and accused him of drunk driving. Pleaded no contest, community service, alcohol treatment.
2005-09-12 KC Larry Johnson RB Charged Domestic violence Accused of domestic abuse in scuffle with his girlfriend at a bar. Police said he shoved her to the floor. Charge dropped after woman declined to testify.
2005-08-28 MIN Kevin Williams DT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic assault in dispute with his wife at his home. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, $1,000 fine, one year of probation.
2005-08-17 KC Lawrence Tynes K Arrested Battery Accused of breaking a bouncer’s nose in a fight in a bar in River Falls, Wis. Pleaded to a reduced charge, fined $397.
2005-08-15 BAL B.J. Sams WR Arrested DUI Pulled over, accused of drunk driving in Maryland. Pleaded to charge of driving while impaired, probation.
2005-08-14 KC Greg Wesley S Arrested Disorderly conduct, alcohol Accused of getting into drunken confrontation with police at Minneapolis hotel along with teammate Junior Siavii. Diversion program, $500 in costs.
2005-08-14 KC Junior Siavii DT Arrested Disorderly conduct, alcohol Accused of throwing objects, getting into drunken confrontation with police at Minneapolis hotel along with teammate Greg Wesley. Pleaded guilty to causing “assault fear,” 80 hours of community service.
2005-07-15 ATL Rod Coleman DT Arrested Disorderly conduct Pulled over for speeding in DeKalb, Ga., accused of getting irritated at police and asking, “Do you know who I am? I play for the Falcons.” Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct, $1,000 fine, six months of probation.
2005-07-13 TEN Adam Jones CB Surrendered Assault Accused of assault and vandalism after being asked to leave club in Nashville. Charges dropped after nightclub manager said he didn’t want to pursue it.
2005-07-10 MIA Randy McMichael TE Arrested Domestic violence, alcohol Witnesses said he gave his wife a bloody nose in Georgia. He acknowledged drinking and was accused of battery and criminal trespass. Pleaded guilty to criminal trespass, three months of probation, $500 fine.
2005-07-04 DEN Sam Brandon S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of third-degree assault and causing property damage in domestic incident in Douglas County, Colo. NFL suspended him two games in 2007.
2005-06-25 DET David Kircus WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in Ottawa County, Mich., for driving erratically, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol at .15. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor, $850 in fines and costs, one day in jail with credit for time served.
2005-06-23 MIA Quintin Williams S Arrested DUI Pulled over near team practice facilility after being clocked at 111 mph, accused of drunk driving and drag racing. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, six months of probation and cut by the team a day later.
2005-06-11 CHI Terry Johnson DT Arrested Gun Police found a loaded 9mm gun in his car he was driving outside a nightclub. Pleaded guilty to gun charge, $2,500 fine, 18 months of probation, 40 hours of community service.
2005-06-04 IND Nick Harper CB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting his wife several times. Diversion program.
2005-06-04 WAS Sean Taylor S Arrested Gun, assault Accused of assault and pointing a gun in a confrontation over his all-terrain vehicles. Pleaded no contest to two misdemeanors, 18 months of probation, $1,000 to schools.
2005-05-29 DET Kalimba Edwards DE Arrested Resisting arrest Pulled over my Michigan state police, accused of resisting arrest and failing to produce a driver’s license. Police pepper-sprayed him. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, $820 in fines and costs, one year of probation.
2005-05-29 IND Mike Doss S Arrested Gun Accused of firing a gun outside a restaurant in Akron, Ohio. Pleaded guilty to carrying a concealed weapon and discharging a gun in city limits, 40 hours community service.
2005-05-20 CLE Kellen Winslow Jr. TE Cited Reckless driving Accused of disregarding safety in motorcycle accident near his home. He tore up his knee in the accident, causing him to miss the season. Pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor charge, fined.
2005-05-12 TEN Tyrone Calico WR Cited Sex Accused of having sex with a woman in the back seat of his Escalade. Charge dropped.
2005-05-06 SEA Koren Robinson WR Arrested DUI Pulled over in Seattle suburb, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol of .191 Pleaded guilty, two years probation, one day in jail, fined $2, 137.
2005-04-25 GB Ahman Green RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic abuse in argument with his wife, who called the authorities on him. Diversion program, 100 hours community service, violence counseling.
2005-03-18 JAC Tommy Hendricks LB Arrested Violating court order Accused of violating restraining order by calling his ex-wife. Team released him a week later.
2005-03-14 TEN Brad Hopkins OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting his wife. Pleaded guilty, one year probation, $10,000 donation to charity, anger management course, one-game suspension.
2005-03-04 ARI Larry Ned RB Arrested Theft Accused of stealing another traveler’s computer at an airport security checkpoint. Released by team immediately.
2005-03-01 TB Dwight Smith S Arrested Gun Accused of pulling a pellet gun on fans who approached him in the drive-thru line at a McDonald’s. Charged with aggravated assault. Charge dropped.
2005-02-24 MIN Kelly Campbell WR Arrested Gun, drugs Pulled over and accused of marijuana possession and a gun that was reported stolen. Pleaded to charge in deal with prosecutors.
2005-02-17 TEN Tank Williams S Arrested DUI Pulled over in Nashville after police said he failed to fully stop at stop sign, accused of drunken driving. Pleaded guilty to reckless endangerment, required to complete alcohol safety program.
2005-02-14 TEN Samari Rolle CB Arrested Domestic violence In Valentine’s Day dispute with his wife, he was accused of assaulting here. She was treated for a cut above her eye. Diversion program, $10,000 donation to battered women, counseling and probation.
2005-02-04 NYG Frank Walker CB Arrested Gun, stolen possession Accused of possesing a stolen vehicle in Atlanta, where police said they also found a gun for which he had a permit. Charges dropped, described as a misunderstanding by Walker.
2005-01-21 CHI David Terrell WR Arrested Violating court order Accused of showing up four hours later to his court date on license and traffic violations. Pleaded guilty to driving on a suspended license, six months of probation, $1,050 fine.
2005-01-01 IND Montae Reagor DT Surrendered Harassment Accused of harassing and threatening the life of telephone to former girlfriend in Colorado. Resolution undetermined.
2005-01-01 DEN Willie Middlebrooks CB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of beating up his girlfriend after his girlfriend called police and said he struck her and choked her at home near Denver. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault, nine months of domestic violence classes, 18-month deferred sentence.
2004-12-20 OAK Charles Woodson S Arrested Alcohol Briefly jailed in downtown Oakland after allegedly refusing to leave a woman’s car around 4 a.m., accused of being drunk in public. Charges dropped.
2004-12-20 OAK Marques Anderson S Arrested Alcohol Briefly jailed in downtown Oakland after allegedly refusing to leave a woman’s car around 4 a.m., accused of being drunk in public. Charges dropped.
2004-12-15 CAR Todd Sauerbrun P Arrested DUI Pulled over in Charlotte, accused of speeding and drunk driving. Pleaded guilty to driving while impaired, $100 fine, one year of probation, 30-day driving ban in state.
2004-12-04 TB Torrie Cox CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Tampa about 3 a.m., accused of drunk driving. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, probation, benched.
2004-12-03 HOU Bryan Pittman C Arrested DUI Accused of driving while intoxicated. Acquitted.
2004-11-16 CHI David Terrell WR Arrested Reckless driving Pulled over in Chicago, accused of reckless driving, driving with a suspended license and failure to yield. Pleaded guilty to driving on a suspended license, six months of probation, $1,050 fine.
2004-11-16 CLE Paul Zukauskas OG Arrested DUI Pulled over in Ohio, accused of drunk driving and failing sobriety tests. Acquitted. NFL suspended him one game.
2004-11-06 ATL Matt Schaub QB Surrendered Assault Accused of being one of three men to assault a man in Virginia outside a campus restaurant. Acquitted by judge.
2004-10-28 WAS Sean Taylor S Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunk driving and refusing to take a breath test in Virginia. Acquitted.
2004-10-22 CAR Jarrod Cooper S Arrested False information Pulled over in North Carolina, accused of providing false information to police. Resolution undetermined. Team released him within a week.
2004-10-19 MIA David Boston WR Arrested Assault Accused of punching an airline ticket agent who wouldn’t let him board a plane at an airport in Burlington, Vt. Pleaded no contest, fined $500 and $211 in restitution.
2004-10-05 CIN Justin Smith DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for weaving near Dayton, Ohio, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol content measured at .152. Pleaded guilty, three-day weekend intervention, $300 fine, $94 in court costs.
2004-09-20 KC Eric Warfield CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Overland Park, Kan., accused of drunk driving, his third DUI arrest. Blood-alcohol measured at .189. T Pleaded no contest to felony, 80 days of house arrest, 10 days in jail, $1,500 fine, suspended four games.
2004-07-18 NE Marquise Walker WR Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Tampa, Fla., after rear-ending another car. Blood-alcohol measured at .179. Team released him within a week.
2004-06-29 MIA Randy McMichael TE Arrested Domestic violence In Fort Lauderdale, Fla., he was accused of hitting his wife, who was six months pregnant. Charge dropped.
2004-06-27 JAC Chris Naeole OG Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of getting into a shoving match with employees at a bar in Jacksonville Beach, he was subdued by police using a Taser. Charge dropped.
2004-06-27 ARI Wendell Bryant DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Madison, Wis., accused of several traffic violations and drunk driving. Pleaded no contest, $660 in fines and court costs, driver’s license suspended for six months, suspended four games.
2004-06-06 MIN E.J. Henderson LB Arrested Assault Accused of assaulting a man outside a nightclub in the Minneapolis Warehouse District along with two teammates. Charge dropped.
2004-06-06 MIN Mike Nattiel LB Arrested Assault Accused of assaulting a man outside a nightclub in the Minneapolis Warehouse District along with two teammates. Charge dropped.
2004-06-06 MIN Steve Farmer TE Arrested Assault Accused of assaulting a man outside a nightclub in the Minneapolis Warehouse District along with two teammates. Charge dropped.
2004-06-03 KC Cliff Crosby CB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of screaming and swearing at police in Erie, Pa., after being stuck in traffic. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, $125.50 in costs, 25 hours of community service.
2004-06-02 DEN Sam Brandon S Arrested Domestic violence Accused of misdemeanor child abuse and criminal mischief in domestic dispute. Charges dropped.
2004-05-25 DET Brock Marion S Charged Theft Accused of bilking his car insurance company out of $54,000 by falsely claiming his car was stolen in 2003. Pleaded no contest, four years probation, $54,000 in restitution, $10,000 to the American Red Cross.
2004-05-06 HOU Marcus Coleman S Arrested DUI Accused of hitting a curb with his Mercedes, failing a sobriety test and drunk driving in Houston. Found guilty by jury, three days in jail, $2,000 fine and a one-year suspension of his driver’s license.
2004-04-27 NO Jay Bellamy S Arrested DUI Pulled over about 12:50 a.m., accused of drunk driving in his 2002 Cadillac. Resolution undetermined.
2004-04-24 STL Leonard Little DE Arrested DUI Pulled over about 3:45 a.m. near St. Louis, accused of speeding and drunk driving. He previously drove drunk in 1998 accident that killed a woman. Acquitted on drunk-driving charge by jury, convicted of speeding.
2004-04-20 BAL Corey Fuller CB Arrested Gambling, gun Accused of hosting lucrative card games at his house, where police raid found him carrying a holstered gun. Acquitted by jury. He had a permit for the gun.
2004-04-17 NE Ty Law CB Arrested Resisting arrest Police tried to stop his Rolls-Royce for a lance violation in Miami before he sped away. Charge dropped.
2004-04-10 MIN E.J. Henderson LB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Interstate 95 in Maryland, accused of drunk driving. Convicted, two years of probation, $1,020 in fines and costs, ordered to attend shock trauma tour at hospital.
2004-04-03 IND Joseph Jefferson CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving after driving his Chevrolet Impala into a ditch in Indiana. Blood-alcohol measured at .15. Pleaded guilty, sentenced to 30 days in jail before he sought a new attorney and new trial.
2004-03-15 GB Joe Johnson DE Arrested Violating court order Accused of contempt of court after not showing up for a hearing on marijuana charge from May 2003. Resolution undetermined. Bond doubled to $3,375 after hearing with the judge.
2004-03-02 NYG David Tyree WR Arrested Drugs Pulled over for speeding in New Jersey, accused of having a half pound of marijuana in his car with intent to distribute. Pleaded to a reduced charge, probation, treatment, night in jail.
2004-02-25 BAL Jamal Lewis RB Indicted Drugs Federal indictment accused him of drug dealing and cocaine possession in Atlanta. Pleaded guilty to using a cell phone to set up a drug deal, sentenced to four months in prison, suspended two games.
2004-02-15 TEN Jason Gesser QB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Honululu for running a red light, accused of drunk driving. Pleaded guilty, 14 hours of alcohol abuse classes, $150 fine, $307 in court fees, 30-day license suspension.
2004-02-02 CIN Levi Jones OT Arrested Obstruction Accused of trying to take a baton from a police officer in a melee outside a club in Houston. Charge dropped.
2004-01-14 SF Jeff Garcia QB Arrested DUI Pulled over in San Jose, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .219. Pleaded guilty, three years of probation, $1,491 fine, eight days of community service.
2003-12-05 KC Larry Johnson RB Charged Domestic violence, gun Accused of brandishing a gun during a dispute with his girlfriend, felony aggravated assault. Diversion program, 120 hours of community service in exchange for dropping the case. Anger-management class.
2003-12-02 CIN James Lynch FB Arrested Public intoxication Accused of public urination, resisting arrest, eluding police and driving with a suspended license. Police used chemical irritant to subdue him. Pleaded guilty to disorderly conduct, two years of probation, 10 days in jail.
2003-11-18 MIN Kenny Mixon DE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Deephaven, Min., accused of drunken driving. It was his third drunken driving arrest in the county in 16 months. Found guilty, 216 hours of community service, 30 days in the county workhouse, 60 days house arrest.
2003-11-17 IND Joseph Jefferson CB Arrested DUI, gun Accused of drunken driving in Bowling Green, Ky., after police saw him driving in a parking lot. He also had a gun on the passenger seat. Pleaded guilty to driving with a suspended license.
2003-11-17 MIN Kevin Williams DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Edina, Min., accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .14. Pleaded guilty to careless driving, $300 fine, 30-day suspended sentence.
2003-10-27 CLE William Green RB Arrested DUI, drugs Pulled over, accused of drunk driving and having a bag of marijuana in his car. Blood-alcohol measured at .165. Convicted, sentenced to three days in jail in February. NFL suspension of four games.
2003-10-26 JAX T.J. Slaughter LB Arrested Assault, gun Accused of aggravated assault after two teens said he pointed a gun at them on a highway in verbal dispute. Police found the gun in his car. Diversion program. Released by team a day later.
2003-10-21 NE Kenyatta Jones OT Arrested Assault Accused of throwing a cup of hot water on his house guest. Pleaded no contest, one year of probation. Team released him five days later.
2003-10-11 ATL Juran Bolden CB Arrested Theft, drugs Accused of driving stoken 2000 GMC Denali vehicle, possession of marijuana in Atlanta. Pleaded no contest to felony possession of stolen vehicle, misdemeanor stolen tags, three years probation, $3,000.
2003-10-07 CHI Rabih Abdullah RB Arrested DUI Police said his SUV rolled over and gave him a concussion, accused him of drunk driving. Pleaded guilty to DUI, sentenced to one year of probation, #1,344 fines and costs.
2003-10-01 NYJ John Abraham DE Arrested DUI Accused of refusing a sobriety test, drunk driving after crashing Hummer into fire hydrant in Baldwin, N.Y. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of driving while impaired, fined $330, benched by team for one game.
2003-09-20 OAK Sebastian Janikowski K Arrested Assault, alcohol Accused of misdemeanor assault, vandalism and public drunkenness after fight at supper club in Walnut Creek, Calif. Charges dropped for lack of evidence.
2003-09-16 CAR Jarrod Cooper S Arrested DUI, drugs Pulled over for speeding, accused of drunk driving, possession of a controlled substance (Xanax) without a prescription. Pleaded guilty to driving while impaired, one year deferred sentence, one year probation, four-game NFL suspension.
2003-09-14 SD Matt Wilhelm LB Arrested DUI Police suspected him of drunk driving in San Diego. He acknowledged making a mistake. Found guilty, five years probation, $1,700 fine, 180-day suspended jail sentence.
2003-09-10 BUF Rodney Wright WR Arrested DUI Accused of refusing breath test, drunk driving, driving without a license and unsafe lane changes after three-car accident in which three were hurt. Resolution undetermined. Released by team within hours.
2003-08-21 SD Leonardo Carson DT Arrested Burglary, assault On leave from team to attend his grandfather’s funeral, he was accused of breaking into a woman’s apartment and assaulting her in Mobile, Ala. Pleaded guilty, sentenced to 30 days in jail.
2003-08-18 BAL Chris McAlister CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Northern Virginia, forcing him to miss team practice. Charge dropped for lack of evidence.
2003-07-25 MIN Mike Nattiel LB Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Minnesota just hours before he was to report to the start of training camp in Mankato. Pleaded guilty to careless driving, 30-day suspended sentence, one year of probation.
2003-07-15 SEA Wayne Hunter OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting his pregnant girlfriend, who had been carrying for eight months. Diversion program. Domestic-violence counseling.
2003-07-12 MIN Bryant McKinnie OT Arrested Obstruction Accused of interfering with police in Miami, where he played college football. Charge dropped.
2003-07-04 DEN Dwayne Carswell TE Arrested Domestic violence Accused of choking and biting his girlfriend outside a nightclub in Atlanta and also obstructing police. Pleaded guilty to batter, one year of probation, one-game NFL suspension.
2003-05-31 TB Michael Pittman RB Arrested Domestic violence Police said he rammed his Hummer into his wife’s Mercedes, which was carrying his 2-year-old child and a babysitter in Phoenix. Pleaded guilty to felony endangerment, 14 days in jail.
2003-05-25 WAS Jermaine Haley DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Miami, accused of drunk driving and property damage after hitting another car with his Land Rover. Pleaded no contest to reduced charge of reckless driving, one year probation, ordered to donate $3,000.
2003-05-22 GB Joe Johnson DE Arrested Drugs Pulled over in Georgia after police saw his hazard lights flashing in a turn lane, accused of marijuana possession. Resolution undetermined. He later failed to show up for court on the charge.
2003-05-22 NYG Keith Hamilton DT Arrested Drugs Pulled over for window-tint violation, accused of cocaine and marijuana possession. Pleaded guilty to cocaine possession, three years of probation, 1,000 community service, retired from NFL.
2003-05-22 TEN Steve McNair QB Arrested DUI, gun Pulled over in Nashville, accused of drunk driving. Police also found pistol in his Lincoln Navigator. Charges dropped after the judge said police didn’t have sufficient reason to stop him.
2003-05-03 HOU Ramon Walker S Arrested Alcohol Accused of public intoxication and trespassing at a nightclub in Houston after he and a friend denied entry around midnight. Resolution undetermined.
2003-04-27 WAS Bruce Smith DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding in Virginia Beach, accused of drunk driving and failing a sobriety test. Blood-alcohol measured at .07. Acquitted by judge.
2003-04-16 TB Dwight Smith S Arrested Gun Accused of flashing a gun at another motorist in Clearwater, Fla., during traffic dispute. Pleaded guilty to brandishing gun, 25 hours of community service, one year of probation, $225 fine.
2003-04-03 SEA Jerramy Stevens TE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Medina, Wash., for rolling through a stop sign, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .14. Pleaded guilty to reckless driving, two days in jail, 25 hours of community service, $1,000 fine.
2003-03-29 BAL Terrell Suggs LB Charged Assault Accused of felony aggravated assault after a fight near Phoenix stadium. Suggs claimed he was hit over the head with an iron rod. Acquitted by jury. He had a permit for the gun.
2003-03-13 KC Eric Warfield CB Arrested DUI Accused of failing to maintain a single lane and drunk driving in Overland Park, Kan. Pleaded no contest, 175 days of parole, two days in jail, three days under house arrest.
2003-02-14 DAL Peppi Zellner DE Arrested Drugs Accused of cocaine possession, intent to distribute, after police in Georgia said they saw a package thrown from his car. Charge dropped after his brother took responsibility.
2003-02-01 SEA Koren Robinson WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of being unruly and failing to disperse after being told to leave the street outside a crowded nightclub in Durham, N.C. Resolution undetermined.
2003-01-14 DAL Dwayne Goodrich CB Charged Manslaughter Accused killing two people in hit-and-run accident while speeding in BMW. The victims had been trying to help pull another driver from a burning car. Convicted, sentenced to 7.5 years in prison, released on parole in 2011.
2003-01-04 CHI Damon Moore S Arrested DUI Accused of driving wrong way on highway ramp in Columbus, Ohio, drunk driving, causing minor accident. Blood-alcohol measured at .18. Found guilty, community service, released from team in April 2003.
2003-01-03 MIN Kenny Mixon DE Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding shortly after 3 a.m., accused of drunken driving, refusing sobriety test. Acquitted by jury.
2002-12-28 DEN John Mobley LB Arrested DUI Accused of speeding and driving drunk south of Denver. He failed a sobriety test. Convicted, sentenced to seven days in jail, 100 hours of public service, two years probation.
2002-11-28 CAR Lamar Smith RB Arrested DUI Pulled over by a state trooper in Mecklenburg County, accused of driving while impaired, speeding and reckless driving. Resolution undetermined. Team placed him on paid leave the next day and released him in March 2003.
2002-11-22 CAR Steve Smith WR Arrested Assault Accused of striking teammate Anthony Bright in a team film meeting. Bright ended up on the hospital and required facial surgery. Diversion program, anger counseling, one-game suspension by team.
2002-11-20 CAR Chris Terry OT Arrested Failure to appear Accused of failing to appear in court as scheduled on domestic violence charge from July 2002. Guilty. Team released him within hours.
2002-11-18 NO Victor Riley OT Arrested DUI Pulled over in New Orleans, accused of disobeying traffic signals and driving while intoxicated. Taken to jail at 2:25 a.m. Resolution undetermined.
2002-10-26 NO Deuce McAllister RB Arrested License Pulled over for allegedly driving 70 mph in a 40-mph zone on the way to team practice facility, accused of driving with a suspended license. Pleaded guilty on license charge, fined.
2002-10-18 CHI Bryan Robinson DE Arrested DUI Pulled over at 2:30 a.m., accused of driving with a suspended license, drunk driving and refusing a breath test, his second DUI arrest since June. Pleaded guilty, 360 hours of community service, alochol treatment, 18 months probation.
2002-10-07 CLE Darren Hambrick LB Arrested Theft Accused of felony grand theft after he cashed a $5,682 check from the Carolina Panthers, then said he never received it and cashed the reissued check. Pleaded no contest, 20 hours of community service, one year of probation.
2002-10-02 OAK Sebastian Janikowski K Arrested DUI Pulled over in Oakland, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .20. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanor DUI, three years of probation, $1,292 fine, DUI school.
2002-09-25 KC Lew Bush LB Arrested DUI Pulled over and ticketed for straddling a lane, accused of drunk driving, refusing sobriety test. Guilty, driver’s license suspended.
2002-09-24 MIN Randy Moss WR Arrested Reckless driving, drugs Accused of careless driving after the officer stepped in front of his car to prevent illegal turn. Moss pushed cop with car, where marijuana was found. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor careless driving, 40 hours of community service, 30-day jail sentence stayed.
2002-08-31 KC Willie Roaf OT Arrested DUI Pulled over, accused of drunk driving in Wyandotte County, Kan. Diversion program.
2002-08-25 OAK Darrell Russell DT Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding in Nevada, accused of drunk driving and failing a sobriety test after visiting a brothel. Pleaded guilty, ordered to attend DUI school, 48 hours of community service.
2002-07-25 CAR Chris Terry OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assault by his wife, who told police he pushed her up against a wall. Diversion program, counseling and community service in exchange for deferred prosecution.
2002-07-23 MIN Kenny Mixon DE Arrested DUI Pulled over in Deephaven, Min., accused of drunken driving, refusing sobriety test. Pleaded guilty, 30 days in the county workhouse or 16 days of community service within three months.
2002-07-18 MIA Derrick Rodgers LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of attacking his wife and another man at a Miami restaurant after suspecting they were involved in an affair. Pleaded no contest, 26 domestic violence classes, 100 hours of community service, one-game suspension.
2002-07-13 BUF Charlie Rogers RB Arrested Assault Accused of punching a cop and resisting arrest in brawl at a go-go bar in New Jersey. Acquitted.
2002-07-12 PIT Marvel Smith OT Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession at a hotel room in Tempe, Ariz., after police were called about the smell. Charge dropped.
2002-07-08 GB Najeh Davenport RB Arrested Burglary Accused of breaking into a woman’s dorm room at Barry University in Miami and defecating in her laundry basket. Diversion program. Charge dropped in exchange for community service.
2002-07-06 NYJ Aaron Beasley CB Charged Battery Accused of simple battery in bar fight in Jacksonville. Dropped.
2002-07-06 SF Mike Rumph CB Arrested DUI Pulled over after police said he ran stop signs in his Escalade, accused of drunk driving in Miami. Acquitted.
2002-07-02 BUF Rodney Wright WR Arrested Reckless driving Accused of hit-and-run after he crashed his SUV into a van in Fresno, Calif. Pleaded no contest to leaving the scene of an accident, three years of probation.
2002-06-26 BUF Sheldon Jackson TE Arrested Drugs, license Pulled over in Illinois, accused of possessing 2.5 grams of marijuana and driving with a suspended license . Guilty, paid fines.
2002-06-23 CHI Bryan Robinson DE Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Lake County, Ill. Pleaded guilty, driver’s license suspended.
2002-06-18 MIA Ricky Williams RB Cited License Pulled over in Fort Lauderdale, accused of acting incoherently and driving his Hummer with expired tags, no license or proof of insurance. Handcuffed and ticketed. Guilty on traffic tickets.
2002-06-13 CHI David Terrell WR Arrested Battery Accused of getting into an altercation with a parking valet at a Chicago nightclub. He believed his car was stolen. Charge dropped.
2002-06-12 IND Joseph Jefferson CB Arrested Gun Police spotted a gun in his car and accused of him carrying a firearm without a license. Resolution undetermined.
2002-05-24 SF Jeremy Newberry OC Arrested Assault Accused of hitting a woman several times in the face on a boat in Lake Berryessa. His sister was also accused of joining in. Charge dropped.
2002-05-18 SF Vinny Sutherland WR Arrested DUI Accused of a hit-and-run accident and drunk driving in Saratoga. Two teammates suffered minor injuries in the wreck. Pleaded no contest, sentenced to 20 days in Santa Clara County jail. It was his second DUI in 10 months.
2002-05-11 PIT Plaxico Burress WR Arrested Public intoxication Accused of being drunk in public and causing disturbances in Virginia Beach. Deferred disposition. Charged dropped if he stays clean for a year.
2002-03-27 IND Dominic Rhodes RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of hitting and shoving his live-in girlfriend in Indiana. Diversion program, $150 fee, counseling and treatment.
2002-03-13 ARI David Boston WR Arrested DUI, drugs Accused of driving under the influence of cocaine and marijuana after testing positive for those drugs. He was arrested at his home after two people called 911. Pleaded no contest to misdemeanors, suspended sentence.
2002-02-24 MIA Ricky Williams RB Arrested Reckless driving Pulled over, arrested and accused of driving 126 mph on Interstate 10 in Louisiana. Pleaded to a reduced charge of speeding, $500 fine.
2002-02-08 CAR Jarrod Cooper S Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving, losing control of his car in a single-car accident in North Carolina. Blood-alcohol measured at .18. Pleaded no contest, one year of probation, 90-day suspended sentence, $800 fine.
2002-02-04 SD Leonardo Carson DT Arrested Assault, gun Accused of pulling a gun at a car repair shop in Mobile, Ala. Shop employee said Carson threatened him in argument over repairs. Charge dropped.
2002-02-01 OAK Darrell Russell DT Arrested Sexual assault Accused of drugging a woman and filming her rape by two associates in Alameda, Calif. Charges dropped for lack of evidence.
2002-01-20 CAR Muhsin Muhammad WR Arrested Drugs, gun Pulled over for speeding in North Carolina, accused of marijuana possession and carrying a concealed weapon. Pleaded guilty, 30-day suspended sentence, $150 fine, one year of probation.
2002-01-19 SD Jeff Graham WR Arrested Gun Accused of carrying a concealed weapon in Dayton, Ohio, after police searched his truck. He was parked and talking on the phone when police approached. Charge dropped.
2001-12-28 NO Albert Connell WR Surrendered Theft Accused of taking $3,500 from car of teammate Deuce McAllister and $863 from his locker. He claimed it was a prank. Charge dropped after he returend the money, and McAllister declined to press charges. Team released him Feb. 28
2001-12-27 NE Bobby Hamilton DE Arrested Domestic violence Accused of domestic assault in dispute with his wife, who showed no sign of injury, according to police. Charge dropped.
2001-12-24 PIT Plaxico Burress WR Cited Alcohol Cited for carrying an open container of alcohol (beer) in the Cleveland warehouse district. Pleaded no contest, $50 fine, $100 court costs.
2001-12-18 KC Eric Warfield CB Arrested DUI Pulled over after police saw him weaving in traffic, accused of drunk driving in Lenexa, Kan. Diversion program, later revoked when he was arrested again in 2003.
2001-12-09 CIN Neil Rackers K Charged Assault Accused of choking man at a sports bar in Covington, Ky., after the man allegedly insulted Rackers’ wife and mother. Diversion program. Charge dropped in exchange for confidential settlement with victim.
2001-12-07 CLE O.J. Santiago TE Summoned Drugs Police searched teammate Gerard Warren’s car and found marijuana, which they said belonged to Santiago. Guilty of disorderly conduct, $366 fine.
2001-11-20 PHI Damon Moore S Charged Animal abuse Accused of abandoning Rottweiler puppy in a New Jersey field three days after buying it. He found the dog to be too much trouble. Pleaded guilty, 15 hours of community service and animal center, $2,000 fine.
2001-11-20 CLE Gerard Warren DT Arrested Gun Accused of carrying an unlicensed gun after police spotted a holster in his Suburban parked outside a nightclub party for Plaxico Burress. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor gun charge, one year of probation.
2001-11-19 CLE Lamar Chapman CB Arrested Drugs Pulled over as passenger in Mike Sellers’ car, accused of marijuana and cocaine possession. Pleaded guilty to possession of drug paraphernalia.
2001-11-19 CLE Mike Sellers FB Arrested DUI, drugs Pulled over in Cleveland with teammate Lamar Champan, accused of speeding, drunk driving and marijuana and cocaine possesssion. Pleaded guilty to drunk driving. Team cut him a week after arrest.
2001-11-16 PHI Terrence Carroll S Arrested Drugs Police caught him smoking marijuana in the back of a car, accused of misdemeanor drug possession. Diversion program, one month of probation, 10 hours of community service, substance-abuse class.
2001-11-11 JAX Jimmy Smith WR Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeing in Jacksonville, accused of drunk driving. Tests later showed cocained in his system. Blood-alcohol measured below limit at .05. Charge dropped.
2001-10-26 BUF Travis Henry RB Charged Sex Accused of attempting to have sex with a 15-year-old girl, who claimed she was almost 18. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor sexual misconduct, 100 hours of community service.
2001-10-14 NYJ Damien Robinson NYJ Arrested Gun Pulled over outside Giants stadium, where bomb-sniffing dog helped lead police to an assault rifle in his trunk. He had permit for the gun in New York. Charge dropped. Team fined him $30,000.
2001-09-14 SF Vinny Sutherland WR Arrested DUI Pulled over on Highway 101 in Bay Area , accused of drunk driving. Pleaded guilty to reduced charge of reckless driving, rehab, two years of probation.
2001-09-04 BAL Cornell Brown LB Arrested Drugs Complaints from neighbors led police to find marijuana and drug paraphernalia at his home. Charge dropped. Team cut him the next day but later re-signed him.
2001-09-02 DEN Eddie Kennison WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of inciting a riot at Louisiana nightclub after dispute with bouncer who denied him entry to club because he wasn’t properly dressed. Charges dropped.
2001-08-31 CIN Vaughn Booker DE Arrested Domestic violence Accused of pushing wife in argument at the couple’s home near Cincinnati. Charge dropped.
2001-08-26 CIN Tom Barndt DT Arrested DUI Pulled over in Covington, Ky., accused of drunk driving. Resolution undetermined. Team released him the next week.
2001-08-12 CLE Corey Fuller CB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of impeding traffic at crowded intersection, refusing to move car when asked to by police in Cleveland. Pleaded no contest to disorderly conduct, fined $75.
2001-07-21 JAX
  1. Jay Soward
WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of being intoxicated at theme park in Orlando, swearing at security guards. Pleaded no contest, $361 in fines and costs.
2001-07-17 JAX Stacey Mack RB Arrested Solicitation Accused of offering $15 to undercover police officer for oral sex. Pleaded no contest, $300 fine.
2001-07-14 CHI Paul Edinger K Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving and crashing into mailboxes in Punta Gorda, Fla. Pleaded guilty to a reduced charge of reckless driving.
2001-07-13 DET Aaron Gibson OT Charged Assault Accused of hitting a woman in the buttocks and spitting in her face outside a club in Pontiac, Mich. Pleaded guilty.
2001-07-05 NO Michael Hawthorne CB Arrested Drugs, reckless driving Pulled over for weaving in New Orleans, accused of reckless driving and marijuana possession after police smelled dope. Resolution undetermined.
2001-07-04 MIA Ben Kelly CB Arrested DUI Accused of bumping into a parked police car, drunk driving and refusing breath test in Miami. Acquitted by jury.
2001-06-23 ARI Michael Pittman RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of breaking sliding glass door and criminal trespass in dispute with his wife in Tempe, Ariz. It was the second domestic incident for him in two weeks. Pleaded guilty, three years of probation, five days in jail, suspended one game.
2001-06-16 TB Alex Ardley CB Charged DUI Accused of drunk driving and crashing Deuce McAllister’s SUV into a house in Tallahassee, Fla. Pleaded guilty to a reduced charge, 150 hours of community service, released by team the next day.
2001-06-15 BAL Chris McAlister CB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of disturbing the peace, verbal abuse and pushing a flight attendant in dispute over seating arrangments at Las Vegas airport. Resolution undetermined.
2001-06-10 ARI Michael Pittman RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of getting into a heated argument with his wife, who locked herself in a car to get away from him. Diversion program, anger management.
2001-05-23 KC Victor Riley OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of ramming his vehicle into another vehicle occupied by his wife and baby daughter, leaving the scene of an accident in Overland Park, Kan. Diversion program, suspended one game.
2001-05-16 NE Terry Glenn WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting the mother of his child in Walpole, Mass. Charge dropped after the mother recanted.
2001-05-14 NYG Jeremiah Parker DE Charged Manslaughter, child abuse Accused of child abuse in the case of the 4-year-old son of his girlfriend. The boy went unconscious and died after being shaken. The mother also was accused. Convicted of endangering a child, acquitted of manslaughter, sentenced to 10 years in prison.
2001-05-04 BAL Leon Searcy OT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of kicking his wife in the leg during an argument. Diversion program, anger management.
2001-05-01 CLE Jeremiah Pharms LB Arrested Theft, gun Accused of stealing $1,500 worth of marijuana and shooting a drug dealer in Seattle in 2000. He was charged with the crime two weeks after getting drafted. Pleaded no contest, 41 months in prison.
2001-04-04 PHI Thomas Hamner RB Charged Animal abuse Accused of beating his pit pull in New Jersey, the second time since November 2000. Pleaded guilty, put the dog up for adoption, fined $1,000.
2001-03-07 NE Adrian Klemm OT Charged Assault Accused of property destruction and punching the windshield of another motorist in a road-rage incident. He didn’t like how the other motorist was driving. Convicted, ordered to pay $455 in restitution, 50 hours of community service, one-year probation.
2001-03-03 MIA Jermaine Haley DT Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving in Miami Beach, bottle of vodka found in his SUV. Blood-alcohol measured at .22. Pleaded no contest, 50 hours of community service, $500 fine, six months of probation.
2001-03-02 DEN Dwayne Carswell TE Arrested Domestic violence Accused of pulling a woman’s hair and bruising her arm’s in altercation in Pueblo, Colo. Diversion program, community service.
2001-02-14 SD Leonardo Carson DT Charged Assault Accused of third-degree assault and criminal mischief in Alabama. Charge dropped.
2001-02-08 CIN Akili Smith QB Arrested DUI Pulled over for driving the wrong way down a one-way street in San Diego, accused of drunk driving. Acquitted.
2001-01-09 CIN Tremain Mack S Jailed Probation violation Sentenced to a month in jail for probation violation stemming from previous drunk-driving conviction. A TV station filmed him driving, which violated probation. Guilty, one month in jail.
2000-11-20 MIN John Davis TE Arrested DUI Police said they found his vehicle stopped in the road with him sleeping behind wheel, accused of drunk driving in Wayzata, Minn. Pleaded guilty to careless driving, fined $700, but $500 of it stayed along with 40-day jail sentence.
2000-11-12 PHI Thomas Hamner RB Charged Animal abuse Investigated for animal cruelty involving his pit bull in New Jersey. Pleaded guilty, $300 fine.
2000-10-28 DEN Brian Griese QB Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding near Denver, accused of drunk driving, failing sobriety tests. Pleaded guilty, one year of probation.
2000-09-21 DAL Joey Galloway WR Charged Asssault Accused of assaulting a police officer at a hotel party in Wheeling, W. Va., in May 2000. Charge dropped.
2000-09-20 WAS Dana Stubblefield DT Arrested Domestic violence Accused of assaulting his wife at their homoe in Virginia during an argument about luggage. Police said there were no signs of physical injury. Charge dropped.
2000-09-12 TB Damien Robinson S Arrested Theft Police pulled him over for a traffic violation and found warrant for his arrest on charge of writing a bad $80 check to the tax collector. Guilty, paid back funds.
2000-09-07 JAX Stacey Mack RB Charged Theft Accused of writing a worthless check for property less than $150, according to county records. Offense date was April 18, 2000. Pleaded no contest, $100 fine.
2000-08-26 CIN Corey Dillon RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of striking his wife in Washington, fourth-degree assault. Diversion program, $750 donation to women’s shelter, treatment.
2000-08-24 KC Andre Rison WR Charged Theft Accused of writing a bad check for $78,800 to a jewelry store while he was playing for the Chiefs. Pleaded guilty, two years of probation, paid back in full.
2000-08-13 NO Darren Perry S Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving, hit-and-run and rear-ending another car near New Orleans. Police pursued him after seeing him swerving in traffic. Resolution undetermined.
2000-08-09 DEN Bill Romanowski LB Indicted Drugs Accused of illegaly obtaining prescription diet pills to boost his performance on the field. Acquitted by jury.
2000-08-07 KC Andre Rison WR Cited False information Accused of lying to police about his name after a bar fight in River Falls, Wis. He told the police his name was Brock Middlebrook. Guilty, fined $219.50. Team cut him a few days later.
2000-07-28 TB Darnell McDonald WR Arrested Burglary, battery Accused of aggravated battery with great bodily harm and burglary stemming from incident on July 14 in Tampa. Pleaded out, two years probation, 150 hours of community service, anger management program, released by team.
2000-07-20 CIN Darnay Scott WR Arrested Theft Accused of writing a back check for more than $5,100 to a motorcycle shop in Florence, Ky. Charge dropped, but he spent a night in jail and had to pay back the money.
2000-07-18 MIA Patrick Surtain CB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Miami for speeding, accused of drunk driving, refusing breath test. Pleaded no contest to reckless driving, 50 hours of community service, $25,000 donation to MADD.
2000-07-07 SD Leonardo Carson DT Charged Assault Accused of third-degree assault, one of string of incidents for him in his hometown of Mobile, Ala. Charge dropped.
2000-06-21 OAK Sebastian Janikowski K Arrested Drugs Accused of possession of a controlled substance, the designer drug GHB, after police approached his car and found suspicious substance. Acquitted by jury.
2000-06-11 CHI Bryan Robinson DE Charged Battery Accused of spitting on a woman’s face at a bar in Chicago. Resolution undetermined.
2000-05-24 OAK Charles Woodson CB Arrested DUI Accused of drunk driving and driving with a suspended license in Ann Arbor, Mich. Blood-alcohol measured at .24. Pleaded guilty to driving while impaired, 60 hours of community service.
2000-05-20 BAL Chris McAlister CB Charged Drugs Accused of marijuana possession after authorities found small amounts in his house while investigating a burglary. Charge dropped for lack of evidence.
2000-05-19 GB Marco Rivera OG Arrested DUI Pulled over for speeding at 95 mph in Brown County, accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .19. Pleaded no contest, $455 speeding ticket, $675 DUI fine.
2000-05-13 WAS Mike Sellers FB Arrested DUI Pulled over in Arlington, Va., after police said his Mercedes was weaving, accused of drunk driving. Convicted of DUI, 18-month suspended jail sentence, one-year license suspension.
2000-04-17 DAL Tony Hutson OT Arrested Failure to appear, gun Pulled over for speeding in Texas, accused of failing to appear in court for previous incident. Police also found a pistol in his car. Resolution undetermined.
2000-04-10 GB Mark Chmura TE Arrested Sexual assault Accused of encouraging teenagers to drink, sexually assaulting 17-year-old girl in the bathroom at a prom party in Wisconsin. Acquitted by jury.
2000-04-06 CIN Steve Foley LB Arrested Gun Accused of firing gun into the air several times outside nightclub in Monroe, La. Pulled over and arrested, Foley yelled he was being illegal searched. Charge dropped for lack of evidence.
2000-04-01 GB De’Mond Parker RB Arrested Drugs Accused of marijuana possession near Chicago after police investigated loud music coming from his parked car. Diversion program. Charge dropped in exchange for drug program.
2000-03-31 MIN Chris Walsh WR Arrested DUI Pulled over near his home in Scottsdale, Ariz., accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .229. Pleaded guilty to drunk driving, $1,277 fine, 12 days in jail, alcohol treatment.
2000-03-23 DAL Solomon Page OT Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of throwing punches and obstructing police in brawl in Morgantown, W.Va. Handcuffed and pepper-sprayed about 3 a.m. Pleaded no contest to reduced charged, $200 fine.
2000-03-14 ARI Mario Bates RB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of slapping his girlfriend in the face in Scottsdale, Ariz. Pleaded guilty, $364 fine, two years of probation.
2000-02-22 KC Tamarick Vanover WR Charged Theft Accused of assisting in the sale of a stolen vehicle, arranging to have it moved from Kansas City to Florida in exchange for $10,000. Pleaded guilty, $10,000 fine, $6,241 to the insurance company, two months each in jail and home detention.
2000-02-21 NO Ricky Williams RB Arrested Failure to appear Pulled over in Austin, Texas, accused of improperly signaling lane change, failure to appear in court for previous traffic incidents. Guilty, pleaded $429 in fines.
2000-02-19 TEN Benji Olson OG Arrested DUI Pulled over at a shopping center in Hopkinsville, Ky., accused of drunk driving. Blood-alcohol measured at .97. Pleaded to a reduced charge of failing to operate vehicle carefully. Fined $100, plus costs.
2000-02-16 KC Andre Rison WR Arrested Theft Accused of renting but not returning a $1,100 audio recorder from Guitar World in Overland Park, Kan. Pleaded no contest, sentenced to one year of probation.
2000-02-06 IND Keith Elias RB Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of resisting arrest and disorderly conduct in incident outside Bamboo Bar in New Jersey, along with Wayne Chrebet of the Jets. Pleaded guilty to nuisance violation, fined $230.
2000-02-06 NYJ Wayne Chrebet WR Arrested Disorderly conduct Accused of disorderly conduct in altercation outside the Bamboo Bar in New Jersey. Pleaded guilty to nuisance violation, fined $230.
2000-02-05 CIN Steve Foley LB Arrested Domestic violence Accused of kicking in the door of his son’s mother and grabbing her by the throat. Charge dropped after woman declined to cooperate.
2000-02-03 CAR Fred Lane RB Arrested Drugs, gun Police pulled him over in Jackson, Tenn., for moving slowly and said they found an assault rifle in the trunk of his Mercedes and marijuana on the men n the car. Indicted but shot and killed by his wife in July 2000.
2000-01-31 BAL Ray Lewis LB Charged Murder Accused of murder in the stabbing deaths of two men outside a nightclub in Atlanta on the night of the Super Bowl. Pleaded guilty to obstruction of justice, one year of probation, fined $250,000 by NFL. Crime unsolved.
2000-01-24 DEN Rod Smith WR Arrested Domestic violence Accused of choking, beating and shoving his common-law wife at home near Denver. Pleaded guilty to misdemeanor count of verbal abuse, two years probation, counseling.
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Try this! “PRONUNCIATION OF “S” Vocabulary of the Day

Try this!
Pronunciation of S
Photo: Try this!<br /><br />
Pronunciation of S” width=”493″ height=”504″ /></div>
<div class=
Vocabulary of the Day
Photo: Vocabulary of the Day
Riddle Riddle
Guess the riddle.
Photo: Riddle  Riddle<br />
Guess the riddle.” width=”336″ height=”504″ /></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class=
GRAMMAR
Gerund and Infinitives
Photo: GRAMMAR<br />
Gerund and Infinitives” width=”496″ height=”504″ /></div>
</div>
<div class=
Idiom of the day
Go Dutch
[for each person in a pair or a group] to pay for himself or herself.
1. I don’t want you to pay for my ticket. Let’s go Dutch.
2. Is it still considered a date if you go Dutch?
Photo: Idiom of the day<br />
Go Dutch<br />
[for each person in a pair or a group] to pay for himself or herself.<br />
1. I don’t want you to pay for my ticket. Let’s go Dutch.<br />
2. Is it still considered a date if you go Dutch?” width=”316″ height=”504″ /></div>
<div class=

Idiom of the day
Head in the clouds
To be unaware of what is going on from fantasies or daydreams.
1. Bob, do you have your head in the clouds?” asked the teacher.
2. She walks around all day with her head in the clouds. She must be in love.
Photo: Idiom of the day<br />
Head in the clouds<br />
To be unaware of what is going on from fantasies or daydreams.<br />
1. Bob, do you have your head in the clouds?" asked the teacher.<br />
2. She walks around all day with her head in the clouds. She must be in love.” width=”341″ height=”504″ /></div>
</div>
<div class=
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1989 EBOLA was here in USA and it was air-born

Watch this report and make it known all over the usa, now we have it even more!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 

 

 

The last several months have led to much confusion about the spread of the Ebola virus. Health officials and governments first denied that a serious threat existed and took no significant action to prevent its spread outside of West Africa. Then, after it had made it’s way to six different countries in the region, officials at the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control started to panic. Apathy gave way to the real fear that we were facing a virus on a whole different scale than ever before.

At its current rate, some mathematical models show that the virus could infect anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 by the end of the year, with over 4,000 people worldwide having been infected thus far. About 2,300 people, over 50% of those who have contracted it, have died. http://www.infowars.com/what-is-not-b…
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“EASY” way to learn “ENGLISH” !!!!!!!!!

 imgG5
From: your Guide to ESL

This week’s newsletter begins with a pronunciation tip on how to use a focus word to bring out the meaning in a sentence. Next, there’s a lesson in which you or your class will learn and discuss different types of movie genres. For grammar review, there’s an advanced level tense review section. Finally, there’s a guide to interrupting in English.

Using a Focus Word to Help with Pronunciation

Once you are familiar with using content words to help with stress and intonation, it’s time to take it to the next level by choosing a focus word. The focus word (or words in some cases) is the most important word in a sentence. For example:

Why didn’t you telephone?! I waited all day!

In these two sentences the word ‘telephone’ is the central focus. It’s the key to understanding both sentences. Someone might answer this question by saying:

I didn’t telephone because I was so busy.

In this case, ‘busy’ would be the focus word as it provides the main explanation for someone being late.

Movie Genres for English Learners

This lesson focuses on encouraging students to discuss some of their favorite films by asking students to discuss examples of different films they like. Next, students write short plot summaries to share with each other.
Tense Review for Advanced Learners

It’s back-to-school time. Before you or your students get down to studying the specifics of various grammar structures, it is a good idea to review the basic English tenses. If you are an advanced student, a review will help remind you of the tenses and also point out any weaknesses or insecurity that you may have. If you are an upper level student but not yet aware of all the tenses, these exercises will make a good introduction to some of the important structures ahead.
Interrupting in English

Learn how to interrupt politely in English, as well as respond to interruptions by either allowing or disallowing the interruption using these phrases.

 

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IF you want to know about America!!!! whatch and read this!!!!!

 Coal Miner’s Daughter is a movie of how many american was

Living in those time and even today!!!

 

 

Loretta Lynn

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Loretta Lynn
Loretta Lynn.jpg

Loretta Lynn, 2005.
Background information
Birth name Loretta Webb
Also known as The Coal Miner’s Daughter
The First Lady of Country Music
The Decca Doll
The Queen of Country Music
Born (1932-04-14) April 14, 1932 (age 82)
Butcher Hollow, Van Lear, Johnson County, Kentucky, US
Genres Country, honky-tonk, gospel
Occupations Singer-songwriter, author
Instruments Vocals, guitar
Years active 1960–present
Labels Zero, Decca/MCA, Columbia, Audium, Interscope
Associated acts Conway Twitty, Ernest Tubb, Kitty Wells, Wilburn Brothers, Patsy Cline, George Jones, Dolly Parton, Tammy Wynette, Jack White, Billy Ray Cyrus, Crystal Gayle, Peggy Sue, The Lynns, Tayla Lynn, Sheryl Crow, Miranda Lambert, Bret Michaels, Willie Nelson
Website www.lorettalynn.com

Loretta Lynn (née Webb; born April 14, 1932) is a multiple gold album American country music singer-songwriter whose work spans more than 50 years. She has received numerous awards and other accolades for her groundbreaking role in country music.

Early years[edit]

Lynn is the daughter of coal miner Theodore Melvin “Ted” Webb (born October 24, 1906 – died February 23, 1959) and Clara Marie “Clary” Ramey (born May 5, 1912 – died November 24, 1981).[1]

Trailblazing path to stardom[edit]

In January 1947, shortly before she turned 15, Loretta married Oliver “Doolittle” Lynn[2] (1926–1996) and soon became pregnant. She and her husband moved to Washington state. Their marriage was tumultuous; he had affairs, but she stayed with him. Their life together helped inspire the music she wrote.[1][not in citation given]

In 1953, on their anniversary, when Loretta was 21, Doolittle bought her a 17-dollar Harmony guitar.[citation needed] She taught herself to play. When she was 24, on their wedding anniversary, Doolittle encouraged her to become a singer. She worked to improve her guitar playing and started singing at the Delta Grange Hall in Custer, Washington, near Bellingham, Washington, with the Pen Brothers’ band, The Westerners. She eventually cut her first record, “Honky Tonk Girl”, in February 1960.

She became a part of the country music scene in Nashville in the 1960s, and in 1967 charted her first of 16 number-one hits (out of 70 charted songs as a solo artist and a duet partner)[3] that include “Don’t Come Home A’ Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)“, “You Ain’t Woman Enough“, “Fist City“, and “Coal Miner’s Daughter“.[4]

Lynn focused on blue-collar women’s issues with themes about philandering husbands and persistent mistresses, and pushed boundaries in the conservative genre of country music by singing about birth control (“The Pill“), repeated childbirth (“One’s on the Way“), double standards for men and women (“Rated “X”“), and being widowed by the draft during the Vietnam War (“Dear Uncle Sam”).[5]

Country music radio stations often refused to play her music, banning nine of her songs, but Lynn pushed on to become “The First Lady of Country Music”. In 1980 her best-selling 1976 autobiography Coal Miner’s Daughter was made into an Academy Award-winning film, Coal Miner’s Daughter, starring Sissy Spacek and Tommy Lee Jones. Her most recent album, Van Lear Rose, released in 2004, was produced by fellow musician Jack White; it topped the country album charts. Lynn and White were nominated for five Grammys and won two. They earned critical success for their work [6]

Loretta Lynn has received numerous awards in country and American music; including being inducted into the Country Music Hall Of Fame in 1988, and the Song Writers Hall Of Fame in 2008. She was honored in 2010 at the Country Music Awards for her stellar career. Her most recent honor is the 2013 Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama (awarded also to Bill Clinton, Oprah Winfrey, and Bob Dylan). Lynn has been a member of The Grand Ole Opry for 51 years, since joining on September 25, 1962. Her first appearance on the Grand Ole Opry was on October 15, 1960. In a press conference she said, “I’ve played in a million places, but the Grand Ole Opry is different.” Lynn has recorded 70 albums, this includes 54 studio albums, 15 compilation albums, and 1 tribute album; and has sold over 48 million albums worldwide in her career.[7]

Personal life[edit]

Birth, parents and siblings, and famous relatives[edit]

Original childhood home of Loretta Lynn in Butcher Hollow, Kentucky

Loretta was the second of eight children. She was named after film star Loretta Young,[8] Ted Webb never got to see his daughter become famous, as he died a year before Loretta’s first single, “I’m A Honky Tonk Girl”, was released. Three of Loretta’s siblings also pursued country music careers: her youngest sister, Crystal Gayle; sister Peggy Sue; and brother, Jay Lee Webb. Patty Loveless (born Patricia Ramey) is related to Loretta on Loretta’s mother’s side, as is Venus Ramey, Miss America 1944.

Lynn was raised in Butcher Hollow, Van Lear, Kentucky, a mining community near Paintsville. Her mother was of Scots-Irish and Cherokee ancestry. Her father was a coal miner, storekeeper, and farmer. Her seven siblings are Melvin Webb Jr. (1929–1993); Herman (b. 1934); Jay Lee (1937–1996);[9] Donald (b. 1943); Peggy Webb Wright (b. 1947); Betty Ruth (b. 1949); and Brenda Gail Webb, who became country singer Crystal Gayle (b. 1951).

Early adulthood[edit]

Loretta married Oliver Vanetta Lynn, commonly known as “Doolittle,” “Doo” or “Mooney” (for running moonshine), on January 10, 1948, after meeting him December 10, 1947, and courting for a month. Mooney was 21 years old; Loretta was 15.[10] The couple moved to the logging community of Custer, Washington when she was 16 years old and seven months pregnant with the first of their six children.[1]

“Doolittle” and Loretta are actually third cousins on the Webb side. After researching Kentucky census records and genealogy records, it has been documented that Doolittle’s mother was a Webb; her name was Sissy Angie Webb. Sissy’s father was John “Roe” Webb, and one of his brothers was Alexander Webb; Alexander was Melvin “Ted” Webb’s (Loretta’s father) father.

This means that Loretta’s grandfather was Alexander Webb and Doolittle’s grandfather was John “Roe” Webb and they were brothers. So, Loretta’s father Melvin was first cousins with Sissy Angie Webb- Doolittle’s mother. That leaves Sissy’s child Doolittle as Melvin’s second cousin and Melvin’s child Loretta as Sissy’s second cousin. So Doolittle and Loretta are third cousin.

hared the same great-grandparents William “Bid” Webb and Isabel Music Webb (parents of the brothers Alexander and John “Roe” Webb).

Children and grandchildren[edit]

The Lynns had three children by the time Loretta was 19 and she gave birth to their fourth child, Cissie, by age 20. The Lynns had six children altogether:

  • Betty Sue Lynn (November 26, 1948 – July 29, 2013; died. They s at age 64) from emphysema[11]
  • Jack Benny Lynn, (1949-12-07)December 7, 1949–July 22, 1984 (died at age 34) by drowning.[12]
  • Ernest Ray Lynn, April 12, 1951 -
  • Clara Marie Lynn (Cissie), April 7, 1952 -
  • Peggy Jean and Patsy Eileen Lynn (twins; latter named for Patsy Cline), August 6, 1964 -

Lynn has survived two of her six children. Her second child and eldest son, Jack Benny, died at age 34 on July 22, 1984, while trying to ford the Duck River at the family’s ranch in Hurricane Mills, Tennessee. Loretta’s eldest child, daughter Betty Sue, died at age 64 from emphysema on July 29, 2013, near Loretta’s ranch in Hurricane Mills.[12] She became a grandmother at age 29 in 1961, three years before her twins were born. She has 21 grandchildren as of April 2014. Before her marriage, she regularly sang at churches and in local concerts in Butcher Hollow and sang continuously to her younger siblings. After marrying, she stopped singing in public, focusing on family life. She passed her love of music on to her children, often singing to them around the house, singing the hymns her mother taught her such as “The Great Titanic” and “In The Pines”.[4]

Husband[edit]

Although the Lynns were married for almost fifty years (Mooney died on August 22, 1996; the couple’s 49th anniversary would have been on January 10, 1997) and had six children,[13] their marriage was reportedly rocky until Doolittle’s death in 1996. In her 2002 autobiography, Still Woman Enough, and in an interview with CBS News the same year, Lynn recounts how her husband cheated on her regularly and once left her while she was giving birth.[14] Lynn and her husband fought frequently; but she has said that “[H]e never hit me one time that I didn’t hit him back twice”.[14] Loretta has said that her marriage with Mooney was “One of the hardest love stories”.[15] Lynn recalls in one of her autobiographies:

“I married Doo when I wasn’t but a child, and he was my life from that day on. But as important as my youth and upbringing was, there’s something else that made me stick to Doo. He thought I was something special, more special than anyone else in the world, and never let me forget it. That belief would be hard to shove out the door. Doo was my security, my safety net. And just remember, I’m explainin’, not excusin’ … Doo was a good man and a hard worker. But he was an alcoholic, and it affected our marriage all the way through.”[16]

Homes[edit]

Lynn owns a ranch in Hurricane Mills, Tennessee, billed as “The 7th Largest Attraction in Tennessee”, featuring a recording studio, museums, lodging, restaurants, western stores, and other attractions. She normally holds three holiday concerts annually at her ranch: Memorial Day Weekend, Fourth of July Weekend, and Labor Day Weekend.[17]

Lynn’s ranch, where she and her husband raised their children, is open for tourists to visit. For over 30 years the ranch hosted Lynn’s Amateur Motocross National Championship, the world’s largest amateur motocross race, in addition to GNCC Racing events. The ranch is centered around her large plantation home along with a replica of her parents’ cabin in Butcher Hollow. She no longer lives in the plantation home.[17]

Injury and recovery[edit]

In 2006 Lynn underwent shoulder surgery after injuring herself in a fall. However, due to complications during the procedure, she had to be revived by doctors. The surgery was successfully completed later.[18][19]

Music career in detail[edit]

1959–1966: Early country success[edit]

Lynn began singing in local clubs in mid-1959 with help, insistence, and support from her husband. She later formed her own band, the Trailblazers, which included her brother Jay Lee Webb. Lynn won a televised talent contest in Tacoma, Washington, hosted by Buck Owens, for which the prize was a wristwatch that broke 24 hours later(Lynn later laughed about it with Owens). Lynn’s performance was seen by Canadian Norm Burley of Zero Records, who co-founded the record company after hearing Loretta sing. He was impressed enough to want Loretta heard from deejays all over the world.[20]

Zero Records president Canadian Don Grashey arranged a recording session in Hollywood, where four of Lynn’s own compositions were recorded: “I’m A Honky Tonk Girl”, “Whispering Sea”, “Heartache Meet Mister Blues”, and “New Rainbow”. Her first release featured “Whispering Sea” and “I’m a Honky Tonk Girl”. She signed her first contract on February 2, 1960, with Zero; the material was recorded at United Western Recorders in Hollywood, engineered by Don Blake and produced by Grashey.[21][22] Musicians backing on the songs were “the great” steel guitar player Speedy West,[23] Harold Hensely on fiddle, Roy Lanham on guitar, Al Williams on bass, and Muddy Berry on drums.[24] She commented on the different sound of her first record: “Well, there is a West Coast sound that is definitely not the same as the Nashville sound … It was a shuffle with a West Coast beat”.[23]

The Lynns then toured the country to promote the release to country stations,[20] while Grashey and Del Roy took the music to KFOX in Long Beach, California.[22] When the Lynns reached Nashville, the song was a hit, climbing to No. 14 on Billboard’s C & W Chart, and Lynn began cutting demo records for the Wilburn Brothers Publishing Company. Through the Wilburns, she secured a contract with Decca Records.[20] From the onset of her career fans took notice and rallied behind her all the way, with the first Loretta Lynn Fan Club formed in November 1960. By the end of the year Billboard magazine listed Lynn as the No. 4 Most Promising Country Female Artist.[citation needed]

Lynn’s relationship with the Wilburn Brothers and her appearances on the Grand Ole Opry, beginning in 1960,[13] helped Lynn become the number one female recording artist in country music. Her contract with the Wilburn Brothers gave them the publishing rights to her material. She was still fighting to regain these rights 30 years after ending her business relationship with them but was ultimately denied the publishing rights. Lynn stopped writing music in the 1970s because of these contracts. Although Kitty Wells had become the first major female country vocalist during the 1950s, by the time Lynn recorded her first record, only three other women – Patsy Cline, Skeeter Davis, and Jean Shepard – had become top stars. Lynn joined The Grand Ole Opry on September 25, 1962.[1]

By the end of 1962 it was clear that she was on her way to becoming the fourth. Lynn has credited Cline as her mentor and best friend during those early years. In 2010, when interviewed for Jimmy Mcdonough’s biography of Tammy Wynette, Tammy Wynette: Tragic Country Queen, Loretta mentioned having best friends in Patsy and Tammy during different times: “Best friends are like husbands. You only need one at a time.”[citation needed]

Lynn released her first Decca single, “Success,” in 1962, and it went straight to #6, beginning a string of Top 10 singles that would run through the rest of the decade and throughout the next. She was a hard honky-tonk singer for the first half of the 1960s and rarely strayed from the genre.[3] Between this time, Lynn soon began to regularly hit the Top 10 after 1964 with “Before I’m Over You”, which peaked at No. 4, followed by “Wine, Women, and Song,” which peaked at No. 3. In late 1964, she recorded a duet album with Ernest Tubb. Their lead single, “Mr. and Mrs. Used to Be”, peaked within the Top 15. Together, the pair recorded two more albums, “Singin’ Again” (1967) and “If we Put Our Heads Together” (1969). In 1965, her solo career continued with three major hits, “Happy Birthday“, “Blue Kentucky Girl” (later recorded and made a Top 10 hit in the ’70s by Emmylou Harris), and “The Home You’re Tearing Down”. Lynn’s label issued two albums that year, “Songs from My Heart” and “Blue Kentucky Girl”. While most were Top 10 Country hits, none reached #1.[citation needed]

Lynn’s first self-penned song to crack the Top Ten, 1966’s “Dear Uncle Sam”, was among the very first recordings to recount the human costs of the Vietnam War.[1] In the latter half of the decade, although she still worked within the confines of honky tonk, her sound became more personal, varied, and ambitious, particularly lyrically. Beginning with 1966’s Number 1 hit in Cash Box, “You Ain’t Woman Enough”, Lynn began writing songs with a feminist viewpoint, which was unheard of in country music. This song made Lynn the first country female recording artist to pen a No. 1 hit.[25]

1967–1980: Breakthrough success[edit]

In 1967 Lynn reached No. 1 with “Don’t Come Home A’ Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)“.[26] “Don’t Come Home A-Drinkin” went to No 1 and became one of the first albums by a female country artist to reach sales of 500,000 copies.[27]

Lynn’s next album, Fist City, was released in 1968. The title track became Lynn’s second No. 1 hit, as a single in earlier that year, and the other single from the album, “What Kind of a Girl (Do You Think I Am)”, peaked within the Top 10. In 1968, her next studio album, Your Squaw Is on the Warpath, spawned two Top 5 Country hits: the title track and “You’ve Just Stepped In (From Stepping Out on Me)”. In 1969, her next single, “Woman of the World (Leave My World Alone)”, was Lynn’s third chart-topper, followed by a subsequent Top 10, “To Make a Man (Feel Like a Man)”. She was reportedly once inspired to write a song about a real woman she suspected was flirting with her husband. The song, “You Ain’t Woman Enough (To Take My Man)”, was an instant hit and became one of Lynn’s all-time most popular. Her career continued to be successful into the 1970s, especially following the success of her hit “Coal Miner’s Daughter“, which peaked at No. 1 on the Billboard Country Chart in 1970, and the album has sold over 5 million copies world wide. “Coal Miner’s Daughter” tells the story of Lynn’s life growing up in rural Butcher Hollow, Kentucky. The song became her first single to chart on the Billboard Hot 100, peaking at No. 83. She had a series of singles that charted low on the Hot 100 between 1970 and 1975. The song “Coal Miner’s Daughter” later served as the impetus for the best-selling autobiography (1976) and the Oscar-winning biopic, both of which share the song’s title.[28]

In 1973 Rated “X” peaked at No. 1 on the Billboard Country Chart and was considered one of Lynn’s most controversial hits. The next year, her next single, “Love Is the Foundation”, also became a No. 1 country hit from her album of the same name. The second and last single from that album, “Hey Loretta“, became a Top 5 hit. Lynn continued to reach the Top 10 until the end of the decade, including with 1975’s “The Pill“, considered to be the first song to discuss birth control, other than the 1967 French-language song in French, Pilule d’Or, sung by Luc Dominique. As a songwriter, Lynn felt no topic was off limits, as long as it spoke to other women, and many of her songs were autobiographical.[14] In 1976, she released her autobiography, Coal Miner’s Daughter, with the help of writer George Vecsey. It became a #1 bestseller, making Lynn the first country music artist to make the New York Times bestseller list. This opened a flood gate of country artists who followed with books. By the early 1980s Lynn became the first American female recording artist to chart over fifty top ten hits.[29]

Professional partnership with Conway Twitty[edit]

In 1971 Lynn began a professional partnership with Conway Twitty. As a duo, Lynn and Twitty had five consecutive Number 1 hits between 1971 and 1975: their first release “After the Fire Is Gone” (1971),won them a Grammy award, “Lead Me On” (1971), “Louisiana Woman, Mississippi Man” (1973), “As Soon as I Hang Up the Phone” (1974), and “Feelins’” (1974). The hit-streak kick-started what became one of the most successful duos of country history. For four consecutive years (1972–1975), Lynn and Twitty were named the “Vocal Duo of the Year” by the Country Music Association. The Academy of Country Music named them the “Best Vocal Duet” in 1971, 1974, 1975, and 1976. The American Music awards selected them as the “Favorite Country Duo” in 1975, 1976 and 1977. The fan-voted Music City News readers voted them the No. 1 duet in 1971, 1972, and 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980 and 1981. In addition to their five Number 1 singles, they had seven other Top 10 hits between 1976 and 1981.[3] Loretta Lynn and Conway Twitty are the most successful and most awarded male/female duet teams in country music history. Conway and Loretta, their duo name, released an album in 1977 titled “Dynamic Duo” and were considered that by their many fans.

Loretta Lynn touring in 1975

As a solo artist, Lynn continued to be very successful into 1971, achieving her fifth No. 1 solo hit, “One’s on the Way“, written by poet and songwriter Shel Silverstein. The songs that didn’t reach the top spot peaked within the Top 10 during this time, “I Wanna Be Free“, “You’re Lookin’ At Country” and 1972’s “Here I Am Again”, all released on separate albums. The next year, she became the first country star on the cover of Newsweek.[30] In 1972, Lynn was the first woman nominated and the first woman to win the prestigious Entertainer Of The Year award at The CMA awards. She won the Female Vocalist Of The Year and Duo of the year with Conway Twitty, beating out George Jones and Tammy Wynette, and Porter Wagoner and Dolly Parton.[citation needed]

Tribute album for Patsy Cline[edit]

In 1977 Lynn recorded I Remember Patsy, an album dedicated to her friend and country pop singer Patsy Cline, who had died in a plane crash in 1963. The album covered some of Cline’s biggest hits. The two singles Lynn released from the album, “She’s Got You” and “Why Can’t He Be You”, became major hits. “She’s Got You”, which went to #1 by Cline in 1962, went to #1 again that year by Lynn. “Why Can’t He Be You” peaked at #7 shortly afterward. Lynn enjoyed enormous success on country radio until the early 1980s, when a more pop-flavored type of country music began to dominate the market. She stayed within the country Top 10 until the mid-1980s; however, most of her music by the late ’70s had a slick pop sound to it. Lynn had her last No. 1 hit in 1978 with “Out of My Head and Back in My Bed”.[citation needed]

In 1979 she had two Top 5 hits, “I Can’t Feel You Anymore” and “I’ve Got a Picture Of Us on My Mind”, from separate albums. Lynn would often sit for an hour or more onstage signing autographs to her fans after a performance. Once in Salisbury, Maryland, the town’s newspaper editor interviewed her while she was signing autographs. Editor Mel Toadvine asked her why she took so much time to sign autographs while more than 100 people stood in line all the way to the front of the Wicomico Youth and Civic Center. “These people are my fans … I’ll stay here until the very last one wants my autograph. Without these people, I am nobody. I love these people”, she told Toadvine. In 1979, she became the spokeswoman for Procter & Gamble’s Crisco oil and did TV commercials and print ads for them for a decade, ending in 1989. Because of her dominant hold on the 1970s, Lynn was named the “Artist of the Decade” by the Academy of Country Music. She is the only woman to win this honor.[31]

1980–1989: Continued success[edit]

On March 5, 1980, the film Coal Miner’s Daughter debuted in Nashville, and soon became the No. 1 box office hit in the United States. Lynn crossed over from country music superstar to American legend. The film starred Sissy Spacek as Loretta and Tommy Lee Jones as Mooney Lynn. The film received seven Academy Award nominations, winning a Best Actress Oscar for Spacek and a slew of other top honors, including a gold album for the soundtrack album, a Grammy nomination for Spacek’s singing as Lynn, a Country Music Association and Academy of Country Music awards, plus several Golden Globe awards. The 1980s featured more hits (“Pregnant Again”, “Naked in the Rain”, “Somebody Led Me Away”).[32] Her 1980 and 1981 albums, Loretta and Lookin’ Good spawned these hits. Lynn was the first woman in country music to have 50 Top 10 hits. Her last Top 10 record as a soloist was “I Lie” in 1982, but her releases continued to chart until the end of the decade. Lynn continued to have Top 20 hits throughout the 1980s.[citation needed]

One of her last solo releases was “Heart Don’t Do This to Me” (1985), which reached No. 19; her last Top 20 hit. In 1993, Lynn stopped releasing singles and focused more on touring than promoting. As a concert artist, she remained a top draw throughout her career, but by the early 1990s she drastically cut down the number of personal appearances due to the fragile health of her husband, who died in 1996. Her 1985 album Just a Woman spawned a Top 40 hit. In 1987, Lynn lent her voice to a song on k.d. lang‘s album, Shadowland with other country stars, Kitty Wells and Brenda Lee, “Honky Tonk Angels Medley”. They released a video for this medley, the album went gold and was Grammy nominated for the four women. Lynn’s 1988 album Who Was That Stranger would be her last solo album for a major record company as a solo artist. She was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1988.[33]

1990–present: Later music career[edit]

Lynn returned to the public eye in 1993 with a hit CD. The trio album Honky Tonk Angels, recorded with Dolly Parton and Tammy Wynette. The CD peaked at #6 on the Billboard Country charts and #68 on the Billboard Pop charts and charted a single with “Silver Threads and Golden Needles”. They released a popular video of this song. The album sold over 800,000 copies and was certified gold in the United States and Canada. The trio was nominated for Grammy and Country Music Association awards. Lynn’s former singing partner Conway Twitty died in 1993. Tammy Wynette died five years later on April 6, 1998. She released a three-CD boxed set chronicling her career on MCA Records. In 1995, she taped a seven-week series on the Nashville Network (TNN), Loretta Lynn & Friends, and performed some fifty dates that year.[34]

In 1995 Lynn was presented with the Pioneer Award at the 30th Academy of Country Music Awards. In 1996, she was widowed. In 2000, she released her first album in several years, Still Country, in which she included “I Can’t Hear the Music”, a tribute songg to her late husband. She released her first new single in over 10 years from the album, “Country in My Genes”, when the single charted on the Billboard Country singles chart it made Lynn the first woman in Country Music to chart singles in five decades. While the album gained positive critical notices, sales were low in comparison with her previous releases. In 2002, Lynn published her second autobiography, Still Woman Enough, and became her second New York Times bestseller peaking in the top ten. In 2004, she published a cookbook, You’re Cookin’ It Country.[35]

In 2004 Lynn made a comeback with the highly successful album Van Lear Rose, the second album on which Lynn either wrote or co-wrote every song. The album was produced by her “friend forever” [36] Jack White of The White Stripes, and featured guitar work and backup vocals by White. Her collaboration with White allowed Lynn to reach new audiences and generations, even garnering high praise in magazines that specialize in mainstream and alternative rock music, such as Spin and Blender.[37] Rolling Stone voted the album the second best of 2004. It won the Grammy Award for Best Country Album of the Year.[citation needed]

In late 2010 Sony Music released a new album titled Coal Miner’s Daughter: A Tribute to Loretta Lynn, featuring stars like Reba McEntire, Faith Hill, Paramore, and Carrie Underwood to re-record Loretta’s hits over the past 50 years. The CD produced a top ten video hit on GAC with the lead single “Coal Miner’s Daughter” that Lynn recorded with Miranda Lambert & Sheryl Crow. The single cracked the Billboard singles chart making Lynn the first female country recording artist to chart records in six decades. In May 2010, Lynn performed at the Nelsonville Music Festival in Nelsonville, Ohio.[38] In 2012, Lynn published her third autobiography, Honky Tonk Girl: My Life in Lyrics.[39] She contributed her take on the Civil War era song, “Take Your Gun and Go, John” to Divided & United: Songs of the Civil War, which was released on November 5, 2013.

Honors and awards[edit]

Lynn has written over 160 songs and released 60 albums, and has sold 45 million records worldwide. She has had ten Number 1 albums and sixteen Number 1 singles on the country charts. Lynn has won dozens of awards from many different institutions, including four Grammy Awards, seven American Music Awards, eight Broadcast Music Incorporated awards, twelve Academy of Country Music, eight Country Music Association and twenty-six fan voted Music City News awards. Lynn still today is the most awarded woman in country music. She was the first woman in country music to receive a certified gold album for 1967’s “Don’t Come Home A’ Drinkin’ (With Lovin’ on Your Mind)”.[40]

In 1972 Lynn was the first woman named “Entertainer of the Year” by the Country Music Association, and is one of six women to have received CMA’s highest award. In 1980 she was the only woman to be named “Artist of the Decade” for the 1970s by the Academy of Country Music. Lynn was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 1988[13] and the Country Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 1999.[41] She was also the recipient of Kennedy Center Honors an award given by the President in 2003. Lynn is also ranked 65th on VH1‘s 100 Greatest Women of Rock & Roll[42] and was the first female country artist to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1977.[43] In 1995 she received the country music pioneer award by the Academy of Country Music.

In 2001 “Coal Miner’s Daughter” was named among NPR‘s “100 Most Significant Songs of the 20th Century”. In 2002, Lynn had the highest ranking (No. 3) for any living female CMT television’s special of the 40 Greatest Women of Country Music.[44]

On November 4, 2004, Lynn, who has been a BMI affiliate for over 45 years, was honored as a BMI Icon at the BMI Country Awards.[45]

In 2008 Loretta Lynn was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in New York City. To date Lynn had been inducted into more music Halls Of Fame than any other female recording artist. In 2010, Lynn received the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award for her 50 years in country music.[46]

Loretta Lynn appeared at the 44th Annual Country Music Awards on November 10, 2010 and was honored for fifty years in country music.[47] That same year, Lynn was presented with a rose named in her honor.[48]

In November 2010 Sony Music released a tribute CD to Loretta Lynn titled Coal Miner’s Daughter: A Tribute to Loretta Lynn. The CD featured Kid Rock, Reba McEntire, Sheryl Crow, Miranda Lambert, Alan Jackson, Gretchen Wilson, The White Stripes, Martina McBride, Paramore, Steve Earle and Faith Hill. In 2011 Lynn was nominated for an Academy of Country Music, CMT Video and Country Music Association award for “Vocal Event of the Year” with Miranda Lambert and Sheryl Crow for “Coal Miner’s Daughter” released as a video and single off the CD.[1]

On September 25, 2012, Loretta Lynn marked her 50th anniversary as a Grand Ole Opry member. The only other women to reach this milestone have been Jean Shepard, Minnie Pearl and Wilma Lee Cooper. Lynn was honored with a tribute show that was broadcast on GAC-TV.[citation needed]

On August 8, 2013, President Barack Obama announced that Loretta Lynn would be awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The press release read as follows: “Loretta Lynn is a country music legend. Raised in rural Kentucky, she emerged as one of the first successful female country music vocalists in the early 1960s, courageously breaking barriers in an industry long dominated by men. Ms. Lynn’s numerous accolades include the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2010.”[49]

Politics[edit]

At the height of her popularity, Lynn was subject to much controversy. Songs by Lynn that have been banned include “Rated “X”,” about the double standards divorced women face, “Wings Upon Your Horns“, about the loss of teenage virginity, and “The Pill“, lyrics by T. D. Bayless, about a wife and mother becoming liberated via the birth-control pill. Her song “Dear Uncle Sam”, released in 1966 during the Vietnam War, describes a wife’s anguish at the loss of a husband to war. It has been included in live performances during the Iraq War.[20] In 1971 Lynn was the first solo female country artist to play the White House for Richard Nixon. She has since returned to perform for the Carter, Reagan, Bush Sr. and Bush Jr. administrations.

Though Lynn has been outspoken about her views on often-controversial social and political subjects, she stated, “I don’t like to talk about things where you’re going to get one side or the other unhappy. My music has no politics.”[50] She has visited the White House six times since 1976, under both Republican and Democratic presidents,[51] and in her autobiography, she said her father was a Republican and her mother a Democrat.

In 2002’s Still Woman Enough, she discusses her longtime friendship and support for Jimmy Carter,[52] yet during the same time period she made her only recorded political donations ($4,300) to Republican candidates and Republican-aligned PACs. In 2013, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Barack Obama.[53] At other times, she has questioned both political parties: “Dear Uncle Sam” was written in 1966 during the Lyndon B. Johnson administration to “recount the human costs of the Vietnam War“, and she made a return to her live sets during the Iraq War under George W. Bush‘s presidency.[citation needed]

While a recognized “advocate for ordinary women”, Lynn has often criticized upper-middle-class feminism for ignoring the needs and concerns of working-class women.[1] She once stated, “I’m not a big fan of Women’s Liberation, but maybe it will help women stand up for the respect they’re due.” Along these lines, her music has spanned from “The Pill” and “Rated X” to more culturally-conservative gospel albums.[54] She allowed PETA to use her song “I Wanna Be Free” in a public service campaign encouraging people not to chain their dogs outside.[55]

Discography[edit]

Studio albums

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Official Loretta Lynn website; accessed May 4, 2014.
  2. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn Bio
  3. ^ Jump up to: a b c Loretta Lynn at CMT.com.
  4. ^ Jump up to: a b Coal Miner’s Daughter, p. 73.
  5. Jump up ^ Thanki, Juli. “20 Most Controversial Songs by Women”. Engine 145. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  6. Jump up ^ “Grammy.com”. The Recording Academy. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  7. Jump up ^ “Discography”. countrywired. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  8. Jump up ^ “About the Artist: Biography of Loretta Lynn”. The Kennedy Center; accessed 2007-02-04.
  9. Jump up ^ http://rateyourmusic.com/artist/jay_lee_webb
  10. Jump up ^ “Loretta Lynn: Married at 15, Not 13; 80-Years-Old, Not 77″. Associated Press via WSAZ-TV. May 18, 2012. Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  11. Jump up ^ Notice of death of Betty Sue Lynn, musicrow.com, July 2013; accessed May 4, 2014..
  12. ^ Jump up to: a b “Loretta Lynn’s eldest daughter dies”. Huffington Post. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  13. ^ Jump up to: a b c Loretta Lynn. Country Music Hall of Fame; accessed 2007-02-04.
  14. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Legends: Loretta Lynn Tells All”. CBS News. December 27, 2002. Retrieved 2007-02-04. “Her autobiography recounts how once, in a drunken rage, he smashed many jars full of vegetables she had painstakingly canned.”
  15. Jump up ^ Lynn, Loretta (2002). Still Woman Enough: a Memoir. Hyperion. ISBN 0786866500.
  16. Jump up ^ Lynn, Loretta et al (1993). Still Woman Enough: A Memoir. Hyperion. p. xiii. ISBN 0-7868-6650-0.
  17. ^ Jump up to: a b “Loretta Lynn official website”. LorettaLynn.com. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  18. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn: Van Lear Rose (2004) reviews”, Metacritic.com; accessed March 3, 2007.
  19. Jump up ^ Lorreta Lynn “Died” in surgery, ContactMusic.com, June 8, 2006; accessed March 30, 2012.
  20. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Van Lear Rose”; accessed February 4, 2007.
  21. Jump up ^ Koch Entertainment Loretta Lynn Biography.
  22. ^ Jump up to: a b “Honky Tonk Make Believe”, Don Grashy – Co. Joseph Mauro, “MY RAMBLING HEART” (Washington. DC: 1995), p. 45.
  23. ^ Jump up to: a b Honky Tonk Girl: My Life in Lyrics (2012). pp. 10-11; ISBN 978-0-307-59489-1
  24. Jump up ^ PragueFrank’s Country Music Discographies, countrydiscography.blogspot.com; May 2011
  25. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn Profile, Country Music Television website]; accessed May 4, 2014.
  26. Jump up ^ Wolff, Kurt (2000). In Country Music: The Rough Guide. Orla Duane (ed.), London: Rough Guides Ltd. p. 311.
  27. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn profile, MusicianGuide.com; retrieved 2008-04-28.
  28. Jump up ^ Will the Circle Be Unbroken: Country Music In America. Paul Kingsbury & Alanna Nash (eds.) London: Rough Guides Ltd., 2006, p. 251
  29. Jump up ^ “Loretta Lynn Biography”. Lyrics Freak. Lyrics Freak. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  30. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn biography, Countrypolitan.com; retrieved 2008-04-18.
  31. Jump up ^ “Loretta Lynn added to ACM’s Girls’ Night Out”. LorettaLynn.com. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  32. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn biography Countrypolitan.com; retrieved 2008-04-28.
  33. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn profile, rollingstone.com; accessed 2008-04-18.
  34. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn profile, musicianguide.com; accessed April 19, 2014.
  35. Jump up ^ “You’re Cookin’ it Country”. Barnes and Noble. Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  36. Jump up ^ Jancee Dunn of Rolling Stone Magazine (2004).The CD received two Grammy awards including Country Album of the Year.“Honky-tonk Woman” Rolling Stone; accessed 2006-06-29.
  37. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn Recovering From Surgery“. CBS News, June 8, 2006; accessed 2007-02-04.
  38. Jump up ^ “Past Shows” Stuart’s Opera House: Nelsonville, Ohio. Stuart’s Opera House: Nelsonville, Ohio, n.d. Web. !8 October 2012.
  39. Jump up ^ Lynn, Loretta (2012-04-03). “Honky Tonk Girl: My Life in Lyrics”. Nyjournalofbooks.com. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
  40. Jump up ^ “Johanna’s Vision”. WordPress. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  41. Jump up ^ County Gospel Music Hall of Fame.
  42. Jump up ^ 100 Greatest Women of Rock & Roll. VH1.com; accessed 2007-02-04.
  43. Jump up ^ Hollywood Walk of Fame directory“. Hollywood Chamber of Commerce; accessed 2007-02-04.
  44. Jump up ^ “40 Greatest Women of Country Music”. Twin Music. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  45. Jump up ^ “Shania Twain, Toby Keith, Casey Beathard Lead Winners at 2004 BMI Country Awards”. bmi.com. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  46. Jump up ^ “Lifetime Achievement Award”. Recording Association online. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  47. Jump up ^ “Country Music Awards”. TVGuide.com. 2010-11-04.
  48. Jump up ^ Lynn, Loretta. “New Rose Named for Loretta Lynn”. Article. Sony Music Nashville. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
  49. Jump up ^ “President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients”. Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  50. Jump up ^ “Loretta Lynn Quotes”. BrainyQuote. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  51. Jump up ^ Wagner, Nichole (2009-06-13). “Loretta Lynn profile”. Uncommonmusic.org. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  52. Jump up ^ Loretta Lynn, Still Woman Enough: A Memoir (New York: Hyperion, 2002)
  53. Jump up ^ Lynn awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, whitehouse.gov; accessed May 4, 2014.
  54. Jump up ^ “Loretta Lynn Quotes”. BrainyQuote. 1935-04-14. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
  55. Jump up ^ “Loretta Helps Furry Friends”, LorettaLynn.com, October 24, 2005.

Further reading[edit]

  • In The Country of Country: A Journey to the Roots of American Music, Nicholas Dawidoff, Vintage Books, 1998; ISBN 0-375-70082-X
  • Are You Ready for the Country: Elvis, Dylan, Parsons and the Roots of Country Rock, Peter Dogget, Penguin Books, 2001; ISBN 0-14-026108-7
  • Dreaming Out Loud: Garth Brooks, Wynonna Judd, Wade Hayes and the changing face of Nashville, Bruce Feiler, Avon Books, 1998; ISBN 0-380-97578-5

External links[edit]

Awards
Preceded by
Johnny Cash
AMA Album of the Year (artist)
2004
Succeeded by
Buddy Miller
Preceded by
Johnny Cash
AMA Artist of the Year
2004
Succeeded by
John Prine
Persondata
Name Lynn, Loretta
Alternative names Webb, Loretta (birth name)
Short description Singer-songwriter, author, activist
Date of birth 1932-04-14
Place of birth Butcher Hollow, Johnson County, Kentucky, U.S.
Date of death
Place of death

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“WOMEN” love to file “CHARGES” on “YOU” for any “CRIME”

Women Offenders

Population estimates from the Census

Bureau for July 1, 1998, indicate that

women account for more than half the

population age 10 or older:

Both genders 230,861,000 100.0%

Females 119,010,000 51.6

Males 111,851,000 48.4

The racial and ethnic composition of

the general population age 10 or older

varies slightly when males and females

are compared. Non-Hispanic black

females outnumber non-Hispanic black

males by nearly 1.9 million, accounting

for more than a quarter of the total

difference in the number of males and

females in the general population.

Minorities compose a slightly higher

percentage of the female population

(26.2%) than of the male population

(25.9%). Nearly a third of the disparity

in the number of females versus males

in the general population is accounted

for by the larger number of minority

females.

The average age of females in the

general population is about 2½ years

older than that of males. The largest

age disparity, about 3 years, is found

among black non-Hispanic females

compared to black non-Hispanic

males. Among females, Hispanic

women have the lowest average age,

29.6 years, while white non-Hispanic

women have the highest, 39.6 years.

Nearly 3 in 4 violent

victimizations committed

by female offenders were

simple assaults; just over

half the violence of male

offenders is described as

simple assault.

The rate of male violent

offending translated into

about 1 violent offender for every 9

males age 10 or older in the general

population; the rate of female violent

offending was equal to about 1 violent

offender for every 56 females age 10

or older.

Per capita rates of offending among

both males and females decreased

from the peak rates recorded in 1994.

Rates of committing violent crime in

1997 were 29% lower for males and

25% lower among females.

Characteristics of violent female

offenders

More than half of female violent

offenders were described by victims

as white, and just over a third were

described as black. About 1 in 10 were

described as belonging to another race

(Asian, Pacific Islander, Native Hawaiian,

American Indian, Aleut, or

Eskimo).

Black and white offenders accounted

for nearly equal proportions of women

committing robbery and aggravated

assault; however, simple assault

offenders were more likely to be

described as white.

Among violent female offenders, 53%

committed the offense while alone, and

40% were with others, all of whom

were female. Among male offenders,

47% were alone, and 51% were with

other males when the offense

occurred. About 8% of violent female

offenders committed their offense

together with at least one male

offender; by contrast, about 1% of male

violent offenders committed the offense

in the company of a female offender.

2 Women Offenders

Total population 119,010,000 111,851,000

Non-Hispanic 0.7 0.7

Hispanic 0.1% 0.1%

American Indian/Alaska Native

Non-Hispanic 3.6 3.5

Hispanic 0.2% 0.2%

Asian/Pacific Islander

Non-Hispanic 12.1 11.2

Hispanic 0.6% 0.6%

Black

Non-Hispanic 73.8 74.1

Hispanic 8.8% 9.5%

White

Females Males

Percent of U.S. population

age 10 or older, 1998

Gender, race, and Hispanic origin

in the U.S. population

Simple assault 1,533,000 7,187,000 18

Aggravated assault 435,000 3,419,000 11

Robbery 157,000 2,051,000 7

Sexual assault 10,000 442,000 2

All 2,135,000 13,098,000 14%

Offense Female Male offenders

Women as

a percent

of violent

Average annual number

of offenders reported

by victims, 1993-97

Violent crimes committed by females and males

1997 99 15 6.5

1996 107 19 5.7

1995 124 19 6.4

1994 140 20 7.0

1993 135 19 7.1

Male Female male:female

Ratio of

offending

rates,

Offending rates:

Number of offenders

per 1,000 residents

Table 3

Table 2

Table 4

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

0

40

80

120

160

Number of violent offenders per 1,000 residents

Women (rate times 7)

Men

Fig. 2

Fig. 1

assault

Robbery

offenses

0% 20% 40% 60%

Percent of female offenders

White

Black

Other

Violent

Aggravated

Simple

assault

Fig. 3

30 or older

21-29

18-20

15-17

12-14

Under 12

0% 20% 40%

Age of offender

Percent of violent female offenders

Victims of violence provided very

similar descriptions of their perceptions

of the ages of both female and male

violent offenders. For each age group

&

juveniles, young adults, and those

30 or older

& victims reported little

variation in offender age between the

two genders.

Juveniles accounted for about 28% of

female violent offenders, nearly identical

to the juvenile percentage (26%)

found among violent male offenders.

Characteristics of victims

of female violent offenders

Overall, female-to-female violence

accounted for 11% of all violent offenders

described by victims. An additional

3% of violent offenders were women

who attacked males.

Violent offenders most often victimized

persons of the same gender. More

than 3 out of 4 female offenders had a

female victim; about 7 out of 10 males

had a male victim. About 29% of violent

offenders had a victim of a different

gender; 9 out of 10 of these offenders

were males with female victims.

Male and female violent offenders

differed substantially in their relationship

to those they victimized. An

estimated 62% of female violent

offenders had a prior relationship with

the victim as an intimate, relative, or

acquaintance. By contrast, about 36%

of male violent offenders were

estimated to have known the victim.

Victims who were intimates accounted

for an identical percentage of both

male and female violent offenders.

When women committed their violent

offense against men, 35% of the

offenders attacked an intimate or

relative. By contrast, 8% of victimizations

of other females involved

intimates or family members. For both

male and female victims, the proportion

of female offenders attacking strangers

was the same.

Where offenders committed

violence and use of drugs or alcohol

For nearly half of female offenders,

the violent offense took place either

at or near the victim’s home or at

school. Less than a third of male

offenders carried out their crimes

in these locations.

According to victim self-reports, female

offenders account for about 1 in 4

offenders committing violence at a

school. Women were also estimated

to account for about 1 in 8 violent

offenders in the workplace and 1 in 6

violent offenders committing the

offense in the victim’s home.

There were few differences between

male and female violent offenders in

victim perceptions of drug or alcohol

use at the time of the offense. About 4

in 10 male and female violent offenders

were reported by victims to have been

using alcohol, drugs, or both at the time

of the offense.

Consequences of female violence

The consequences of male violence

were generally more serious for the

victim in terms of weapon use, injury,

and out-of-pocket losses to the victim.

Male offenders were more likely than

female offenders (28% to 15%) to have

used a weapon such as a blunt object,

knife, or firearm in the commission of

the violent offense.

Serious injuries, such as broken bones,

being knocked unconscious, concussions,

knife wounds, or gunshot

wounds, were slightly more associated

with male offenders; however, the likelihood

of hospital treatment for the

victims of male and female offenders

was about the same. An estimated

865,000 violent offenders were responsible

for crimes against victims whose

injuries resulted in hospital treatment;

 

 

 

Women and Crime

According to a self-report study, women were less likely than men to have offended and commited a crime in the last year (11% compared with 26%). Women ‘grow out of crime’ – they are most likely to desist from offending in their late teens. The peak age of reported offending for girls was 14. (The peak age of recorded offending for girls was 15, compared to 19 for men). Criminal statistics show that, in 2002, only 19% of known offenders were women. Theft and handling is the most common indictable offence for women accounting for 57% of known female offenders in 2002. Female arrestees identified as having drug problems are more likely than men to have received drug treatment, spend more money on drugs, report recent use of more harmful drugs and are more often referred to a drug rehabilitation unit.

16% of those arrested for notifiable offences are women but the proportion is higher for fraud and forgery (27%) and theft and handling (22%). Research suggests that following arrest , women are more likely than men to be cautioned and are less likely to have their cases classified as ‘No Further Action’ or be charged. This partly reflects the fact that women are more likely than men to admit their offences and to be arrested for less serious offences.

When sentencing is concerned women are more likely than men to be discharged or given a community sentence for indictable offences and are less likely to be fined or sentenced to custody. Women sentenced to custody on average receive shorter sentences on average than men.

Top crimes women are most associated with:

  1. Theft from shops
  1. ‘Other’ wounding
  1. Robbery
  1. Burglary of all kinds
  1. ‘Other’ fraud
  1. Production, supply and possession with intent
  1. To supply a Class A controlled drug
  1. Summary motoring offences
  1. Handling stolen goods

Women prisoners make up just over 6% of the prison population. There were, on average, 4,299 women in prison in 2002. Between 1992 and 2002, the average population of women in custody rose by 173% as against 50% for men, reflecting sentencing changes at the courts.

Many women in prison have committed only minor offences and pose very little risk to their communities. Some argue that imprisoning a woman can have a disastrous effect on her family as well as herself. Additionally, the large number of women being sentenced to short-term prison sentences for minor offences has led to a general over-crowding problem in women only prisons.

A number of studies have reported on the background of women offenders. They found that most women offenders are mothers who have no work outside the home and had problems at school and left with few qualifications. Most are on state benefits and in debt and have accommodation problems and have experienced some form of abuse and suffered psychological distress and have serious problems with alcohol and drug misuse. A good number of women prisoners have been in local authority care as children and some have lost the care of their own children.

Why are more women being arrested and sentenced in 2011? One of the theories that has been forwarded is the ‘Masculinity Theory’.

It is generally accepted that men commit more crime than women; a statistic that has led many to look for an explanation for such disparity between the sexes. One explanation has proposed that masculinity and crime are inherently linked, and apparent increases in female offending in recent years has led some to conclude that this must be the result of women’s increased masculinity. Research aimed at identifying this increase has failed to yield consistent results. This study utilised a self-perception measure of masculinity and femininity to explore this idea with four groups of women. A total of ninety-seven violent female offenders, non-violent female offenders, full time mothers and professional women were questioned.

Results found that offenders perceived themselves as possessing significantly more masculine characteristics than non-offenders, and that violent offenders perceived themselves as the most masculine. Specifically, more offenders perceived themselves as glamorous, adventurous and rude, and more violent offenders thought of themselves as aggressive. Perceptions of a ‘typical women’ were also measured in an attempt to measure how different participants viewed themselves from other women. All of our women saw ‘the typical woman’ as more feminine and less masculine than themselves.

What could stop this increase in female offending?

The Ministry of Justice wants to look at the following areas:

Targeting anti-social attitudes and anger, self-control, family processes (e.g. affection and supervision). The removal of anti-social friends was associated with reductions in women’s re-offending rates.

Targeting general educational needs was associated with a reduction in women’s re-offending.

The evidence of in-prison drug treatment for women is mixed, but overall programmes based on cognitive behavioural approaches were more promising than those based on therapeutic community models.

Residential treatment after prison enhanced the effects of prison-based treatment.

There was some evidence that discharge or transitional planning and continuity of input from prison to community reduced reconviction rates among high risk women.

Courtesy of Lee Bryant, Director of Sixth Form, Anglo-European School, Ingatestone, Essex

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Myrtle Beach woman beat up man after he ‘passed gas’ in her face, police say

 

 

Watch This Woman Viciously Beat Up a Man For Flying a Drone at a Public Beach

Jun 9, 2014
A 23-year-old woman brutally clobbered a dude after she felt threatened by his flying a drone at a public beach.

Video of the incident dropped on LiveLeak this morning, and shows the Connecticut man attempting to gather his gear as the woman calls 911 to report his “taking pictures of people with a helicopter plane.” It’s one thing to harass someone for taking pictures (she’s wrong for doing so, since they’re at a public beach where photographs are free to be taken), but it’s another to assault someone for taking those pictures, which she has no problem doing.

The man recorded the assault on his iPhone, and when police arrived, they arrested the woman after he showed them the footage.

From the drone pilot:

I never went below 50 feet save for take off/landing, then after the end of my last flight, some crazy lady came over and started taking pictures of me, and dialed 911 for the 3rd time in 15 minutes. They basically said that they’d send someone when one gets free during each of the 3 calls she made, she decided they didn’t care enough about someone obeying the law so when no one was around she assaulted me and she decided to stop when she got a phone call. I called the police to report the assault, and boy was the response big…10 or more vehicles arrived (cops, DEEP, and an ambulance). The police approached me very aggressively, believing her full story, and before anything else was said I brought up something that she missed— the fact that the cell phone in my hand has a camera, that was recording. I had video evidence that she went nuts completely unprovoked, and was the one that assaulted me. She was then charged with assault, and breach of peace and I gave the cops a copy of the video for their prosecution. I then also showed them my last flight where you can make out her colorful shirt getting up from the beach then following it until it lands which proved that she lied when claiming that she asked me to stop flying before calling the police.

At the end of it all, one of the officers said to me basically, “Flying that thing the way you were is fine, you’re not in any trouble. You can come back and fly, but just be aware that some people can be alarmed.”

People Watch & Laugh When Woman Is Seen Beating Up Man

A men’s domestic abuse shelter staged an incognito demonstration of the double standard that domestic abuse has in the public’s eyes. During the segment where a female attacked a male the onlookers just stood and laughed.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMRmGOj-Kj4&feature=player_detailpage

Myrtle Beach woman beat up man after he ‘passed gas’ in her face, police say

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    SC dad led authorities to 5 dead children, sheriff says

    Updated: Tuesday, September 9 2014 10:57 PM EDT2014-09-10 02:57:14 GMTSep 09, 2014 9:57 PM CDTSep 09, 2014 9:57 PM CDTThe bodies of five missing children from Lexington County have been found in Alabama.

  • The bodies of five missing children from Lexington County have been found in Alabama.
  • South Carolina’s unemployment drops as food stamps rise

    South Carolina’s unemployment drops as food stamps rise

    Updated: Wednesday, September 10 2014 6:57 PM EDT2014-09-10 22:57:08 GMTSep 10, 2014 5:57 PM CDTSep 10, 2014 5:57 PM CDTMonth after month, South Carolina’s unemployment rate continues to steadily drop. At the same time, the rate of South Carolinians enrolling in food stamps is soaring. Glinda, who wouldn’t give her last name, works as babysitter and has other side jobs. She also relies on food stamps and says she still needs food assistance from the food bank. She received a box of food today from the Harvest Hope mobile food bank in C…

  • Month after month, South Carolina’s unemployment rate continues to steadily drop. At the same time, the rate of South Carolinians enrolling in food stamps is soaring. Glinda, who wouldn’t give her last name, works as babysitter and has other side jobs. She also relies on food stamps and says she still needs food assistance from the food bank. She received a box of food today from the Harvest Hope mobile food bank in C…
  • The need for food assistance is on the rise.
  • More>>

MYRTLE BEACH, S.C. – A Myrtle Beach man and woman were arrested after they came to blows in a fight sparked when the man allegedly “passed gas” near the woman’s face, according to a Myrtle Beach Police report.
The incident happened on Monday night around 7:45 pm at a house in the 900 block of 3rd Ave North, police said. The problems began when a man who routinely sleeps on the porch of the house, came inside while “intoxicated and `passed gas’ in (a woman’s) face while she was laying on the couch,” police wrote in a report. The woman then walked outside to escape the situation, but the man followed her. Once outside, the woman told police that while they were verbally arguing, the man walked toward her in a “threatening manner” and she then hit him 3 times in the face with a closed fist, police said in a report. A witness told police that the pair were both fighting over the initial “passed gas” incident. Darrell Ray McKnight, age 64, was transported to Grand Strand Regional Hospital for a swollen eye, police said. Jessica Annette Cerney, age 33, who works as a clerk at Scotchman Mobile, was not intoxicated and did not suffer injuries, police said.
They were both arrested on a charge of Disorderly Conduct Fighting / Force Company On Another, according to the Myrtle Beach Police.

 

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A Woman Is Beating Up a Man in Public. Would You Intervene?

A Woman Is Beating Up a Man in Public. Would You Intervene?

You’re minding your own business, traversing a city sidewalk, when suddenly you see a physical altercation — and it involves a man and a woman.

Image source: ManKind Initiative

Do you intervene?

Ah, but hang on a second. There’s a twist.

What if the woman is beating up the man?

Image source: via The Mirror

So…do you intervene?

A hidden-camera experiment by the ManKind Initiative claims that onlookers in public react in strikingly different ways depending on the aggressor’s gender, The Mirror reported.

In the first case, filmed in a London park, a male actor attacks his “girlfriend” in front of shocked witnesses — and they get involved very quickly.

There’s a threat to call police, and another witness adds: ”You don’t have to put up with that honey, he’s not worth it.”

Image source: ManKind Initiative via The Mirror

But in the second scenario when the female is the one doing the pounding…

Image source: ManKind Initiative via The Mirror

…the crowd just stares. Some even laugh.

Image source: ManKind Initiative via The Mirror

So…how would you respond? Let us know in the comments below.

And here’s the clip. (Content warning: Quite a few f-bombs and other rough language flies…):

 

http://pix11.com/2014/07/29/video-men-drag-woman-from-elevator-before-beating-robbing-her/#ooid=xuaTJibzoIO-loRcnwvasLT9bnoBEFma

NEVER SAID his COLOR OF SKIN?

MIDWOOD, Brooklyn (PIX11) - A young woman returning to her Midwood apartment was violently attacked and robbed last Sunday, according to police.

Police released surveillance video showing the two suspects laughing as they follow the 18-year-old into her building.

They slip into the elevator behind her and the second suspect appears to grab her by the neck and pull drag her into the hallway.

She tries to fight back, but both men hold her down, punching and kicking her before finally stealing her purse and fleeing.

Police describe the first suspect as being in his late teens to early 20’s weighing approximately 240 pounds. He was last seen wearing an orange T-shirt, beige shorts and a backpack.

The second suspect is believed to be 20-25 years of age and was last seen wearing a black T-shirt and multi-colored pants.

Anyone with information is asked to call the anonymous police tip line Crime stoppers at 1-800-577-TIPS (8477).

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Recognize domestic violence against “MEN” and “WOMEN”

Ravens running back Ray Rice is planning to address the media at 3 p.m. Friday for the first time since he was charged with knocking

 

I have seen many things on TV, but this is crazy the NFL will not say anything bad about a “BLACK” “MAN” or BLACK WOMAN

That is “OK” a WHITE MAN does anything a little off OMG!!!! “HELL TO PAY” EQUAL!! OK make it all “EQUAL” look at Mickel VICK

DOG fighting!!!OMG he got what a few month’s in the big house!! A woman can strap her kid’s in a car and push the car in a pond of water and people feel sorry for this witch!!!!

DOUBLE STANDARD”S I DON”T LIKE!!!!

 

 

The “incident,” as it’s been called, happened in February. Baltimore Ravens running back Ray Rice beat up his then-fiancée (now wife) Janay Palmer in a casino elevator. Ray Rice told his teammates, and presumably his bosses, that he knocked her unconscious because he was defending himself. At the time, the Ravens tweeted, “Janay Rice says she deeply regrets the role that she played the night of the incident.” Rice was given a two-game suspension. Now, months later, the Ravens have terminated Rice’s contract. What’s changed?

Proof. This week, TMZ posted a security-camera video of the incident titled “ELEVATOR KNOCKOUT.” CNN described it this way: “Rice punches Palmer. Palmer lunges after Rice, and then Rice hits her again and she falls to the floor.” The visible graphic violence spurred the NFL to do what it should have done months ago and ban Ray Rice. Viral video is apparently what it takes for the NFL to care about players who abuse and assault women. Defensive end Greg Hardy was found guilty of beating up his girlfriend in July, and he still plays for the Carolina Panthers. The legal system has nothing on a few minutes of security-camera footage.

I didn’t watch the video, and I won’t link to it because Janay Rice is not the person who made it public. She didn’t want us to see this. The widely circulated “ELEVATOR KNOCKOUT” footage — and Ray Rice being fired from the NFL as a result — doesn’t make her any safer. It doesn’t help her heal. “No one know the pain that the media & unwanted options from the public has caused my family,” she wrote on her Instagram account today. “To make us relive a moment in our lives that we regret everyday is a horrible thing.” Her words reminded me of Steubenville, and other prominent cases in which photos and videos of sexual assault have been made public and led to prosecutions — and greater awareness of what is often a private crime. But not without emotionally decimating the survivors, who are re-victimized once the photos are made public.

A few years ago, I wrote about Rihanna asking her fans to stop hating on Chris Brown, and how hard it can be to support a woman who, in turn, supports the man who very publicly abused her. In the comments, a woman explained why she returned to her abuser: “People who knew he was abusive asked me why I would go back. My response was always, why not? I felt if no one else cares about my abuse, if everyone thinks he is the victim and asks ‘how long should he be punished,’ then why shouldn’t I forgive him?” Collectively, we do a terrible job of letting survivors know we care about them, no matter what they decide. We don’t talk about what it means for a black woman to call the police on a black man. We don’t acknowledge that seeking a protective order can mean putting up with disparaging comments, and that a woman who calls it “abuse” and tries to leave is putting herself in more immediate danger. We don’t talk about the fact that nobody wants to feel like a victim.

FOR THE MEN!!!!!

Women aren’t the only victims of domestic violence. Understand the signs of domestic violence against men, and know how to get help.

Recognize domestic violence against men

Domestic violence — also known as intimate partner violence — occurs between people in an intimate relationship. Domestic violence against men can take many forms, including emotional, sexual and physical abuse and threats of abuse. It can happen in heterosexual or same-sex relationships.

It might not be easy to recognize domestic violence against men. Early in the relationship, your partner might seem attentive, generous and protective in ways that later turn out to be controlling and frightening. Initially, the abuse might appear as isolated incidents. Your partner might apologize and promise not to abuse you again.

In other relationships, domestic violence against men might include both partners slapping or shoving each other when they get angry — and neither partner seeing himself or herself as being abused or controlled. This type of violence, however, can still devastate a relationship, causing both physical and emotional damage.

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“LEARN” “ENGLISH” Fast and Easy!!!!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=CeAma4pjjCc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3cd4InZXvV8&feature=player_detailpage#t=2

Alvin Davis <alvindavis99@gmail.com>
11:46 AM (1 minute ago)
to 蒋鹏

“CAN I TEACH YOU ENGLISH!!!!!!!” I WILL……………….Leave a comment

Teachers can make a class “FUN”never say the same thing to students, never always say good morning, maybe if it is after lunch to see if the hear you!!! Haaha and they turn and say “NO”teacher it is afternoon. Always change your teaching ways. Never be the same.

IT IS NOT WHAT I TEACH YOU TODAY

IT IS WHAT YOU REMEMBER TOMMORROW!!!!

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Basic English lessons to advanced Leave a comment

Basic Englishlessons to advanced

To view a lesson click on the category of your choice. Then you will see a list of lessons that are related to your choice.

English lessons in categories

Numbers Alphabet Greetings / introductions Animals
Fruit / vegetables Food / drink Conversation Holidays Sport Clothes Money Days / dates Directions Basic English lessons Body parts Telling the Time Transport Airport Peoples appearance Questions Weather Jobs Health and beauty Prepositions All grammar lessons Shopping Writing letters Colours Computers Kitchen Emotions Business

Learning the basics of the English language

Start learning English with the list of basic English lessons by clicking on this link. The list is for people that have little or no experience of the English language. The list can also be used by those that might want to refresh their knowledge on some of the English basics. The lessons are in no particular order, so pick you can choose which lesson you would like to start learning from the list available after clicking on the link.

Learning English level 1 basic

Learning English level 1 has over seventy lessons to choose from. You can start learning this level by clicking on the link above or by clicking on the menu at the top and clicking all lessons. Basic English level one it is for people with little or have no experience of the English language or want to refresh their English. The first lesson is for learning the English alphabet and second one you will learn about numbers. The rest of the basic English level 1 lessons, you will be able to start learning some basic English words, how to greet people, jobs, food computers and much more. If you don’t see a lesson of your choice you can request a lesson by leaving a comment in the contact usin the menu.

Learning English level 2 basic

The next level is learning basic English level 2 which you will find is slightly more difficult than basic English level 1. There are a wide range of topics such as money, greetings, seasons and the months of the year are covered in depth for you to start learning at an Easy Pace Learning. Remember if you find that you are struggling with any lesson or have a question, post a message on the Easy Pace Learning forum, we will always try and help you and answer all your questions as soon as possible.

Learning English level 3 basic

Learning English level 3 is quite a hard level, but if you have completed the English lessons in level 1 and level 2 already, you might not not notice a big difference. Sometimes if you don’t understand something about the English lesson you are currently doing try repeating the lesson again, and if you are still unsure please post a question on the forum and we will help you.

Learning English level 3 learning grammar

This level you will be learning all about English grammar, we recommend that you do each lesson one after another. Whilst you are reading and studying each lesson, try to think about the explanation that is given. Do not worry too much or get obsessed about English grammar as it is only a small part of the English language, above all it is important that you enjoy learning the English language.

English vocabulary exercises

There are currently 3 levels of exercises for you to choose from. We have basic level, level 1 and level 2 exercises. There are many topics that have been covered with each having several exercises for each topic. This part of the website is the latest addition so we are currently adding exercises to the website on a daily basis.

What if I am struggling learning English?

When trying to learn the English language you will sometimes come into difficulties, please don’t worry as we help you as much as we can. Below is a list of questions you that might help you.

You don’t have the lesson that I want to learn about, what can I do?

Easy Pace Learning try and make as many different lessons to help make learning English as easy as possible for you to learn English, of you don’t see a English lesson we will make one for you (see next Question).

Can I request a lesson? eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

Yes, if there is a subject or lesson you want to learn and you can’t see the English lesson listed then ether using the contact us form or use the forum to request the lesson of your choice. We promise that we will add the lesson to the list, usually within one week. Remember Easy Pace Learning is a free on-line website built to people learning the English language.

How Easy Pace Learning will always try and help you improve learning English

If you are struggling learning English or have a question or a problem with a lesson, then try posting a question on the Easy Pace Learning forum you will not only be helping yourself, but others as well as others might be having the same problem as you. The can use the forum to ask any questions you may have about any of the lessons, it doesn’t matter if the questions is not related to a lesson as long as it is about learning English, we will answer all post as fast we can.

You can post questions on Facebook: AlvinLesterDavis

Sometimes it is easier to post a question on Facebook as we all use it! to post a question on Facebook click on the link Easy Pace Learning Facebook. Then come and say hello and post as many questions as you like, just make sure you like the page as well and tell your friends.

Having fun whilst learning English

Whist you are learning English, it is important that you enjoy learning. A great way to learn English is to listening to music it will help you learn different words and are fun to listen to. Please don’t think that you have to remember all the words that you hear, use music to get used to hearing new words and also learning some.

What is Easy Pace Learning chat and will it help me learning English?

Easy Pace Learning chat feature is like Facebook, but without all the adverts or people asking you to play games. It is also a great way to practise your English that you have learnt. Sign up and get as many friends to join today and practise your English skills.

PLEASE TELL YOUR FRIENDS ABOUT US

We want to help as many people as possible start learning the English language to help us achieve this goal please tell as many people as you can about the website. To help us post links on Facebook and twitter or any other social network.

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We have a brief video to so that to show you a brief site tour of Easy pace Learning. We hope that you enjoy using Easy Pace Learning and look forward you using the site again. All the videos that are used for learning English on this site can be viewed by clicking on this link or by clicking on the menu at the: eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

When faced with learning the English it can use up a lot of your own time, by having to practice. But when you have learnt some of the English language, it will help lead you to a brighter future. By learning English it will give you many advantages. More work prospects, your job grade will hopefully go up and you will make new friends. Click on the title or eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

Do you have any questions about learning English?

If you have any question about learning English then please contact us using the Easy Pace Learning forum we want to help you as much as we can whist you are learning the English language.

Add a link to your website

Feel free to add a link on your own website, You Tube or blog so other people can use the website as well we can help you with the code needed.

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This page is available for you to listen to. To here the above text in

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Alvin Lester Davis West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience · Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

  • In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.

Experience CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.comJanuary 2009 to October 2013

Teacher · Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

  • As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students

Shane English School – Dongying, China

January 2008 to September 2009

English Teacher · Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

  • Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
  • Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA

Novartis– Emeryville, CA

2006 to 2008 Master Mechanic

  • Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.

VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA

2005 to 2006

H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR

  • Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.

COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP

Boeing / L3 2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer · Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

  • Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
  • Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea

Yamas Controls 2001 to 2002 Chiller Specialist · Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

  • Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
  • Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
  • Left Company to go overseas.

Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1996 to 2000

Supervisor/H&C Maintenance

  • King Khalid International Airport Project
  • Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
  • Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
  • Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
  • Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.

Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. –Shreveport, LA

1993 to 1996 Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

  • Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F). American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993 Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

  • Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.

Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA

1983 to 1991 Stationary Engineer · Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

  • Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.

Education/ Qualification and Training

Oklahoma State University –Stillwater, OK

B.A. – Facilities Engineering Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University

Boiler Seminar Military Secret Clearance Special Skills Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.

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On Fri, Sep 5, 2014 at 1:00 PM, Gigaom <comment-reply@wordpress.com> wrote:

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Sprint adds 15 new regional carriers to its LTE rural roaming program

by Kevin Fitchard

Sprint’s rural carrier partnership program has now grown to include 27 different operators, covering a population of 38 million.

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“ICE BUCKET CHALLENGE” THE DOG’S POINT OF VIEW

Lmfao 󾌸󾌸󾌸󾌸

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A RAISING AIR ALSO HAS A BUBBLE SYSTEM THAT WILL INFLATE

A RAISING AIR ALSO HAS A BUBBLE SYSTEM THAT WILL INFLATE

 

Rising gas bubbles are routinely used to agitate liquids of diverse composition ranging from pure water to molten metal, but bubble plumes themselves present a class of fluid dynamics problems that are complex enough to defy precise solution by any currently available means. Nevertheless, from an approximate standpoint, considerable progress has been made, first with analytical models [1], [2], [3], [4] and [5] that employ pre-defined (Gaussian) distributions for bubble concentration and liquid velocity, and more recently with numerical simulations [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20] that compute these quantities from prescribed governing equations. Single-phase simulations [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10] (also called quasi single-phase simulations [21]) confine the rising bubbles to a predetermined axisymmetric plume, inside which an upward buoyant force is imposed on the surrounding liquid, with the latter regarded as a single continuous fluid. Two-phase simulations [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20] impose no such plume constraint and fall into two general categories. Eulerian–Lagrangian simulations [11], [12], [13], [14] and [15] employ a Lagrangian viewpoint for the bubbles, tracking them as discrete particles, and an Eulerian viewpoint for the liquid, which is regarded as a continuous fluid. In contrast, Eulerian–Eulerian simulations [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20] use a volume-averaged approach in which the liquid and gas are treated as distinct, but continuous, fluids. Balaji and Mazumdar [10] review single-phase models in particular, and Mazumdar and Guthrie [21] do likewise for single-phase and two-phase models in general. Jakobsen et al. [22] offer an extended review comparing the two different types of two-phase models.

Two-phase simulations may do an acceptable job of reproducing the near-field dynamics of bubble plumes, but they may also demand more resources than are feasible for computing the flow created by multiple plumes. In a practical setting, where computational fluid dynamics (CFD) might otherwise be used to investigate arrays of bubble diffusers for large-scale mixing applications, there arises the need for a plume model that can be easily incorporated into existing single-phase CFD codes. The present work accommodates this need with a simple approximation for bubble-induced vertical acceleration inside an idealized cylindrical plume, without solving additional equations of motion for the bubbles themselves.

Earlier single-phase models [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10] have employed fixed cylindrical or conical plumes, within which all the bubbles remain as they rise toward the surface. In such models, the buoyant acceleration of the surrounding liquid is proportional only to the volume of undissolved gas inside the idealized plume, and Mazumdar and Guthrie [23] have demonstrated that approximations of this sort can render velocity predictions outside the plume that are as accurate as those of two-phase models. Although a conical plume is qualitatively more realistic, we propose a cylindrical model here because it is easier to implement for multiple plumes, and simplicity is a practical consideration when the model is to be used in designing arrays of two or more bubble diffusers to mix large volumes of liquid. For applications of the latter kind, in which velocity prediction is much more important outside the plume than inside, we demonstrate that a cylindrical column is an adequate representation for bubble plumes in unstratified liquids.

The present work implements a drift–flux model [6] for bubble plumes and a k–ϵ model [24] for turbulence in an existing single-phase CFD code [25] and [26]. Empirical approximations are used for the plume radius [2] and the bubble slip velocity [27], but our numerical experiments indicate that these quantities have a relatively weak effect on the velocities outside the plume. Velocities computed with the proposed model are found to be most greatly affected by the total gas volume in the plume, and they are roughly proportional to the 2/5 power of the gas flow-rate from 200 to 22,000 cm3/s. Outside this range, however, we find that the exponent approaches 1/2 for much smaller flow-rates, and 1/3 for much larger flow-rates. The ability of the model to make useful far-field velocity predictions, with only the gas flow-rate, the liquid depth, and the container geometry as input, is demonstrated through comparison with experimental data for single and double bubble plumes in water.

  1. Cylindrical bubble plume

Bubbles released from an orifice quickly accelerate to their terminal (slip) velocities relative to the liquid [1], during which time they may also deform and break up into smaller bubbles [12]. When this process is complete, we assume that the bubbles and the liquid are close enough to dynamic equilibrium that the drag force on the bubbles is balanced by the buoyant force on the liquid. The latter is given by Archimedes’ principle, and when the density of the gas in the bubbles is small compared with the density of the liquid in the bubble plume, the upward buoyant acceleration of the liquid in the plume is approximately

equation(1)

<img height=”33″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”93″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si19.gif”&gt;

where g is the constant acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) and αB is the local ratio of bubble volume to liquid volume. If the bubble volume ratio αB is also small, then Eq. (1) reduces further to

equation(2)

<img height=”12″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”72″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si20.gif”&gt;

Although αB can, in principle, take any value between zero and unity, we limit our consideration to situations in which αB≪1. In practice, values of αB greater than 0.1 progressively nullify the approximation given by Eq. (2), and they may also engender fluid dynamics too complex to be modeled adequately by a single-phase CFD code. In any case, if Eq. (1) were employed in favor of Eq. (2), it would produce larger buoyant accelerations (and correspondingly higher liquid velocities) than Eq. (2) with increasing αB.

Single-phase models [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10] avoid computing the motions of individual bubbles by specifying the plume geometry in advance and by imposing simple approximations for αB. Dey Roy et al. [6] assume a cylindrical plume, and they assign a single value of 0.24 for the ratio of plume radius to container radius. Grevet et al. [7] and Mazumdar and Guthrie [8] assume conical plumes, with the cone dimensions inferred from laboratory experiments. Castillejos et al. [9] likewise employ conical plumes, but they also propose an empirical formula for the plume radius in terms of the gas flow-rate and the height above the bubble source. Inside the plume, single-phase model expressions for αB are given in terms of the gas flow-rate, either as empirical functions of position [9] or as drift–flux approximations [6], [7] and [8] based on bubble residence times.

For simplicity, we idealize the plume as a right-circular cylindrical volume of liquid (Fig. 1) within which all the bubbles remain as they rise toward the liquid surface, and we derive an expression for αB based on the reasoning of Müller et al. [28] Let dVP be an infinitesimal cylindrical element of the plume, with radius rP and infinitesimal height dz, such that

equation(3)

<img height=”19″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”100″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si21.gif”&gt;

If dt is the time required for a bubble to traverse distance dz, then the ratio dz/dt is the local vertical velocity of the bubbles in the plume. This can be separated into two components, i.e.,

equation(4)

<img height=”35″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”94″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si22.gif”&gt;

with w the vertical velocity of the liquid, and w0 the slip velocity of the bubbles relative to the liquid. Defining Q as the volumetric flow-rate of gas bubbles through dVP, the bubble volume dVB enclosed within dVP at any time t is

equation(5)

<img height=”37″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”166″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si23.gif”&gt;

At a depth h below the liquid surface, the bubbles are compressed by the weight of the liquid, and the local gas-volume flow-rate through dVP is related to its value Q0 at atmospheric pressure by

equation(6)

<img height=”37″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”88″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si24.gif”&gt;

where h0 is the depth of liquid equivalent to one atmosphere of pressure (10.4 m for water). Combining ,  and  with the definition for the local bubble-volume ratio in the plume, i.e.,

equation(7)

<img height=”37″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”72″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si25.gif”&gt;

the expression for the latter becomes

equation(8)

<img height=”39″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”203″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si26.gif”&gt;

Combining  and , the buoyant acceleration of the liquid inside the plume is given approximately by

equation(9)

<img height=”39″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”200″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si27.gif”&gt;

Aside from the depth-correction factor, h0/(h+h0), Eq. (9) is the same as the drift–flux approximation introduced by Deb Roy et al. [6] Outside the plume, of course, the bubble-induced buoyant acceleration is identically zero.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (8 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr1.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr1.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr1.gif”>

Fig. 1.

Idealized bubble plume with radius rP in cylindrical container with radius R.

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The quantities Q0, w, and h can be specified unequivocally in Eq. (9), because they are respectively determined by the bubble-generating device, the computed flow, and the height of the liquid surface. On the other hand, the plume radius rP and the bubble slip velocity w0 are free parameters in the proposed model, and they have to be determined empirically. If the flow velocity w were sufficiently large compared to the slip velocity w0, then the latter could be neglected in Eq. (9), but this does not hold for liquids accelerated from rest, for which w is initially zero. In any case, the assumption of a single fixed value for w0 has been widely used in single-phase and two-phase flow simulations [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20], and we employ the same assumption here.

For bubbles ranging from 1 to 25 mm in diameter, the slip velocity varies from 15 to 35 cm/s [27]. We choose the median (w0=25 cm/s) as our default value, and we demonstrate in Section 5 that the extreme values in this range (15 and 35 cm/s) produce little change in the liquid velocities computed with the proposed model. We show otherwise in Section 5 that the value chosen for rP does have a strong effect on the computed velocities, but only in the near field, at radial distances r≲2rP from the center of the plume. Since the plume radius must be determined empirically as a function of the gas flow-rate and the total depth, however, we postpone until Section 6 our discussion of specific formulas for rP.

  1. Liquid governing equations

The equations governing the motion of the liquid, both inside and outside the bubble plume, are taken to be the Reynolds-averaged continuity and momentum (Navier–Stokes) equations for incompressible flow, respectively given in vector form by

equation(10)

<img height=”14″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”68″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si28.gif”&gt;

equation(11)

<img height=”34″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”215″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si29.gif”&gt;

where ρ is the liquid density, uis the velocity, <img height=”11″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”13″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si30.gif”&gt; is the shear-stress tensor, gB is the buoyant acceleration created by the bubbles, and P is the pressure. The non-zero vertical component of gB is given inside the plume by Eq. (9), and the Reynolds-averaged tensor components τij of <img height=”11″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”13″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si31.gif”&gt; are represented as

equation(12)

<img height=”41″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”171″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si32.gif”&gt;

where the subscripts i,j may take values 1,2 or 3, corresponding to the three cartesian coordinate directions (x=x1, y=x2, and z=x3). Here the quantity ν indicates the kinematic eddy viscosity, rather than the molecular viscosity, and its value is computed from the k–ϵ turbulence model of Launder and Spaulding [24] via the standard formula,

equation(13)

<img height=”39″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”74″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si33.gif”&gt;

where k is the turbulence energy (per unit mass), ϵ is its dissipation rate, and the value of the empirical coefficient Cν is 0.09.

The turbulence model itself consists of two equations for the production, transport, and dissipation of k and ϵ; i.e.,

equation(14)

<img height=”38″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”209″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si34.gif”&gt;

equation(15)

<img height=”40″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”273″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si35.gif”&gt;

The product νΓ on the right sides of  and  is the production rate for turbulence energy, in which Γ is given by

equation(16)

<img height=”22″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”432″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si36.gif”&gt;

with the symbols u, v and w representing cartesian velocity components, and the subscriptsx,y and z indicating partial derivatives. The standard set of (non-dimensional) empirical coefficients for the k–ϵ turbulence model is C1=1.44, C2=1.92, σk=1.0, and σϵ=1.3.

Strictly speaking, the production rate for turbulence energy should include a direct contribution from the bubbles in addition to the conventional shear-production rate νΓ. In their Eulerian–Lagrangian model for bubble plumes, Johansen and Boysan [29] do include such a contribution, which arises from the relative motion between the bubbles and the surrounding liquid. For the proposed model, this contribution would be proportional to gBw0, making the total production rate νΓ+CBgBw0, where CB is a coefficient to be determined empirically. In practice, the additional production term itself presents no difficulty; but as far as we know, an adequate formula has not yet been developed for CB. Johansen and Boysan [29] present results for two gas flow-rates (1300 and 6100 cm3/s) with which they used two different values (0.1 and 0.7) for CB. They offer no general rule for specifying CB, but they do recommend further investigation of its possible relation to bubble size and shape , liquid surface tension, and turbulence length scales. An investigation of that sort is beyond the scope of our work here, but we do include in Section 7 a comparison of results obtained with CB=0 for a cylindrical plume, and CB=1 for a truncated conical plume. Otherwise, to avoid introducing an arbitrary free parameter in our model, we have excluded the direct production of turbulence by bubbles.

  1. Numerical flow solution

The proposed model for bubble plumes has been implemented in the MAC3D single-phase CFD code [25] and [26], which solves , ,  and  in discrete (finite-volume) form. To achieve geometric flexibility in three dimensions, the equations are transformed from cartesian coordinates to general curvilinear coordinates [25] and [26] and discretized for structured curvilinear grids [30] created by a separate numerical grid generator [31]. These grids may take familiar shapes like those obtained with conventional rectangular, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates; or they may take irregular shapes [31] that include rectangular, cylindrical, spherical, and distorted (boundary-fitted) components. In any case, the discrete flow variables are staggered in the grid cells, with normal (contravariant) velocity components defined on the cell faces, and scalar quantities (such as pressure) defined at the cell centers [30]. The solution algorithm [26] is a semi-implicit time-marching scheme that uses second-order upwinding for advective terms [32], with the pressure gradient given by the iterative solution of a discrete Poisson equation [30] and [33] derived from  and .

Concerning boundaries (Fig. 1), we idealize the upper (free) surface of the liquid as a frictionless lid (slip surface), where we impose null values for the vertical component of velocity and the vertical (z) derivatives of other variables (uz=νz=Pz=kz=ϵz≡0). The plume axis is treated as a slip line, along which we impose null values for the radial component of velocity and the radial (r) derivatives of other variables (wr=Pr=kr=ϵr≡0). Elsewhere, solid walls (container sides and bottom) are treated as frictional (no-slip) boundaries, along which standard wall functions [34] are used to define the values of k, ϵ, and shear stress.

In all the numerical simulations reported here, the flow was started from rest, with the plume acceleration gB activated at time t=0. Small initial values were assigned to k and ϵ, which made the initial eddy viscosity roughly equal to the molecular viscosity for water (10−6 m2/s). Except for the simulation of two interacting plumes in a large body of water ( Section 7), the code was allowed to run to steady state in each case, and the grids were sufficiently fine that further refinement (by a factor of two) changed the computed velocities by less than 3%.

  1. Numerical experiments

To investigate the behavior of the proposed model with respect to the plume radius rP, the slip velocity w0, and the gas flow-rate Q0, we used a hypothetical cylindrical tank with depth H=3.05 m, and radius R=15.25 m. The computational grid had a uniform spacing of 15.25 cm in the vertical and radial directions, out to radial position r=3.05 m, beyond which the radial spacing was gradually increased to 30.5 cm over an interval of 50 grid spaces. A hypothetical bubble source with a nominal gas flow-rate of 4720 cm3/s (at atmospheric pressure) was centered on the bottom of the tank (r=0, z=0).

Computed results are presented in non-dimensional form, using R and H to normalize the radial and vertical coordinates, r and z, respectively. Velocities are non-dimensionalized with the plume scaling velocity U0, which we define as

equation(17)

<img height=”46″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”190″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si37.gif”&gt;

Note that if U0 were indeed a characteristic velocity for bubble plumes, it would mean that the liquid velocity (predicted or observed) should scale with the 2/5 power of Q0 and the inverse square-root of H. The 2/5 exponent chosen here for Q0 lies roughly halfway between the extreme values of 0.33 and 0.48 observed experimentally [35] for bubble plumes in unbaffled containers filled with water. In any case, with the proposed 2/5 exponent for Q0, an inverse square-root of H is needed in Eq. (17) to give U0 in terms of Q0, H and g with proper units of length/time. Further discussion of the scaling relation between velocity and gas flow-rate is given in Section 8.

Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 show radial profiles (at mid-depth, z/H=0.5) of the non-dimensional vertical velocity w/U0, computed with three non-dimensional plume radii, rP/R=0.02, 0.03 and 0.04. Although the near-field profiles ( Fig. 2, r≲2rP) may look Gaussian, like those imposed in analytical models [1], [2], [3], [4] and [5], their actual shapes lie somewhere between Gaussian and logarithmic, and they are the result of imposing the buoyant force given by Eq. (9) in the limited cylindrical region defined by r⩽rP. It is evident that the velocity near the idealized plume is quite sensitive to the value chosen for rP, with a ±33% variation in rP producing a ±30% spread in w. In the far field ( Fig. 3, r>2rP), the same variation in rP produces less than a ±10% change in w. In the numerical experiments discussed below, which demonstrate the separate influences of slip velocity and gas flow-rate, the plume radius was given the non-dimensional value, rP/R=0.03.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (7 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr2.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr2.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr2.gif”>

Fig. 2.

Near-field influence of plume radius rP on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (8 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr3.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr3.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr3.gif”>

Fig. 3.

Far-field influence of plume radius rP on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 show mid-depth radial profiles for w/U0, computed with three different values for the bubble slip velocity, w0=15, 25 and 35 cm/s. The latter span the range of values observed (in water) for individual rising bubbles ranging from 1 to 25 mm in diameter [27]. In this case, a ±40% spread in w0 produces less than a ±5% variation in the computed velocity, both inside and outside the plume. This justifies the selection of the median observed value (w0=25 cm/s) as a default slip velocity for the proposed model.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (6 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr4.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr4.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr4.gif”>

Fig. 4.

Near-field influence of slip velocity w0 on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (6 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr5.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr5.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr5.gif”>

Fig. 5.

Far-field influence of slip velocity w0 on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 show mid-depth radial profiles for w/U0, computed with three different gas flow-rates: Q0=472, 4720 and 47,200 cm3/s. Recall that if Eq. (17) defines the characteristic velocity for bubble plumes, then w should scale precisely with the 2/5 power of Q0 and the inverse square-root of H. The results in Figs. 6 and 7 exhibit roughly a 2/5 power scaling with flow-rate over two orders of magnitude in Q0, both inside and outside the plume. As for the possible scaling of computed velocity with the inverse square-root of depth, we found (in other numerical experiments not presented here) that if both the gas flow-rate and the container geometry are held fixed, then w does indeed scale roughly as H−1/2. Fixed geometry means, however, that H/R and rP/H (or rP/R) must be the same from one simulation to the next. Otherwise, the scaling of velocity with depth may be quite different from inverse square-root.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (7 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr6.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr6.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr6.gif”>

Fig. 6.

Near-field influence of gas flow-rate Q0 on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (7 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr7.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr7.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr7.gif”>

Fig. 7.

Far-field influence of gas flow-rate Q0 on liquid velocities computed at mid-depth.

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  1. Bubble plume radius

Although the plume radius does not have to be known precisely for the proposed model to be useful outside the plume, it helps considerably if rP can be reliably estimated within, say, ±30%. This degree of uncertainty is small enough to limit the associated error in velocity to less than ±10% outside the plume (r>2rP). Thus, an empirical formula is needed, which roughly accounts for the variation of plume radius with the gas flow-rate and the vertical distance from the bubble source, so that a mean radius for the model plume can be specified in advance for any given flow-rate Q0 and depth H. For flow-rates Q0≲7000 cm3/s, Cederwall and Ditmars [2] propose the formula,

equation(18)

<img height=”31″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”108″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si38.gif”&gt;

with reference depth h0=10.4 m, and entrainment coefficient α taken as a function of Q0. Using values extracted by Cederwall and Ditmars [2] from data obtained by Kobus [1], we have developed an approximate expression for α, given by

equation(19)

<img height=”45″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”142″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si39.gif”&gt;

where

equation(20)

<img height=”46″ border=”0″ style=”vertical-align:bottom” width=”119″ alt=”” title=”” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-si40.gif”&gt;

Note that the plume length-scale r0, first introduced by Castillejos et al. [9], was used in defining the scaling velocity U0 in Eq. (17). For application with the proposed model, however, Eq. (18) should be used with z=H/2 to obtain the mean radius of the bubble plume over total depth H.

  1. Comparison with experiment

Owing to the assumption of a stationary bubble column with a fixed radius, the proposed model can reproduce, at most, only the time-averaged flow created by real bubble plumes. This precludes simulation of phenomena such as wander [3], in which the plume gyrates about its (cylindrical) axis of symmetry. Even with this limitation, however, the model is still useful in computing velocity distributions needed for estimates of plume-induced mixing and transport [26]. To demonstrate its capabilities in this regard, we compare model predictions with experimental data for single plumes at gas flow-rates of 205, 405 and 2500 cm3/s, all of which lie in the reported range of validity [2] for  and . To demonstrate further applicability for multiple plumes, we also compare predicted and experimental results for the case of two interacting bubble plumes with gas flow-rates of 21,700 cm3/s each.

The first set of data comes from experiments done by Grevet et al. [7] in a water-filled cylindrical tank of depth H=0.6 m and radius R=0.3 m, into which air was injected through an orifice of diameter d=1.27 cm, centered on the bottom. The published velocity measurements consist of time-averaged velocity magnitude U=[u2+ν2+w2]1/2, obtained for two different flow-rates, Q0=205 and 405 cm3/s.

Fig. 8 compares our model predictions with the data for all six vertical positions (z/H=0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.56, 0.68 and 0.98) reported from the experiment [7]. The computational grid had a uniform spacing of 1.5 cm in the radial and vertical directions. Using (to the nearest grid space) the values given by Eq. (18) with z=H/2=0.3 m, the model plume radii were specified as rP=7.5 cm for Q0=205 cm3/s, and rP=9.0 cm for Q0=405 cm3/s. Since two different flow-rates are involved, all velocities are presented in non-dimensional form U/U0, with U0 defined by Eq. (17).

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (21 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr8.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr8.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr8.gif”>

Fig. 8.

Comparison of predicted and observed liquid velocities for cylindrical tank with depth H=0.6 m, radius R=0.3 m, and gas flow-rates Q0=205 and 405 cm3/s.

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It is evident from Fig. 8 that the model is considerably less accurate in the vicinity of the idealized bubble column (r/R<0.3) than it is elsewhere. Otherwise, fair agreement is achieved between prediction and experiment, and the model generally reproduces the data outside the plume within a factor of two. The near agreement of the non-dimensional experimental results appears roughly to corroborate the proposed 2/5 power scaling of the velocity with Q0. With a factor-of-two ratio represented in the gas flow-rates, however, the difference between 1/2 and 1/3 power scaling is only about 12%. Any exponent in this range would probably render a fair correlation, given the scatter in the data.

The second set of data comes from experiments conducted by Castello-Branco and Schwerdtfeger [36] in a water-filled cylindrical tank of depth H=2.25 m and radius R=0.8 m, into which air was injected through an orifice of diameter d=5.0 mm, centered on the bottom. In this case, the published velocity measurements consist of radial profiles of time-averaged vertical velocity, taken at three vertical positions on opposite sides of the tank axis, for a single gas flow-rate, Q0=2500 cm3/s.

Fig. 9 compares our model predictions with the data for all three vertical positions reported from the experiments (z/H=0.089, 0.267 and 0.533). The computational grid had a uniform spacing of 2.5 cm in the radial and vertical directions. Using (to the nearest grid space) the value given by the Eq. (18) with z=H/2=0.6 m, the cylindrical plume radius was specified as rP=15 cm for Q0=2500 cm3/s. Since only one flow-rate is involved, all quantities are presented in dimensional form. Circular and triangular symbols indicate experimental data taken on the left and right sides of the tank axis,

respectively. Solid curves (—) indicate the proposed (simple) model with a cylindrical plume and standard k–ϵ turbulence model (CB=0). Dashed curves (- – – -) indicate the model (extended) with a truncated conical plume and direct bubble-generated turbulence (CB=1). In the latter case, the vertical variation of rP was approximated in “telescope” fashion, using values of 12.5 cm in the lower third, 15 cm in the middle third, and 17.5 cm in the upper third of the grid. This representation for rP exaggerates slightly the variation given by Eq. (18), but it approximates that variation to the nearest grid space, and it allows predicted results to be compared using the same computational grid for the cylindrical and conical plumes.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (16 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr9.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr9.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr9.gif”>

Fig. 9.

Comparison of predicted and observed liquid velocities for cylindrical tank with depth H=2.25 m, radius R=0.8 m, and gas flow-rates Q0=2500 cm3/s. The curves indicate model results obtained with (––) and without (—) a conical plume and direct bubble-generated turbulence. The symbols indicate experimental data taken to the left (•) and right (▴) of the container axis.

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Outside the plume, the predicted results shown in Fig. 9 exhibit about the same degree of accuracy as those in Fig. 8. Unlike the previous case, however, the data of Castello-Branco and Schwerdtfeger [36] include a number of velocity measurements taken inside the plume itself. These reveal that the near-field distribution broadens, while the maximum velocity decreases, with vertical position (z/H). The computed near-field distribution also broadens, but the predicted maximum velocity increases with z/H for both the simple and extended versions of the model. The extended model reduces the predicted rate of increase somewhat, but not enough to achieve quantitative agreement inside the plume. Otherwise, there is little difference between the predictions of the two versions of the model outside the plume. Even if one allows for the data variation that arises here from plume wander, the model still fares poorly in the vicinity of the plume(r<0.2 m). The upshot is that the proposed model (simple or extended) is useful for predicting time-averaged velocities at radial distances greater than 2rP, but not for predicting velocities inside the bubble plume itself.

The final set of data comes from field tests conducted by Hornewer et al. [37] for coarse bubble diffusers in an abandoned, water-filled rock quarry, approximately 335 m long, 244 m wide, and 12 m deep. The experiments under consideration took place under destratified conditions with the diffusers placed near the middle of the quarry, 60 cm from the bottom. The case presented here involves two bubble diffusers, each with an air flow-rate of 21,700 cm3/s, separated by a horizontal distance of 4.6 m [26] and [37]. Comparisons for other configurations with two diffusers and four diffusers can be found in a recent technical report [26].

For comparison with the velocity data obtained in the field test, the proposed model was executed (invoking symmetry) using the single-quadrant grid shown in the plan view in Fig. 10. Station 0 represents the left-side diffuser, station 1 the vertical axis of symmetry between the diffusers, and stations 2 and 3 locations respectively 2.3 and 13 m to the left of station 0. The computational grid extended well into the far field, to a radial distance of 50 m from the diffusers. The radial spacing was approximately 32 cm near the modeled diffuser, and the vertical spacing was uniformly 60 cm throughout the gird. The horizontal spacing was coarsened gradually with increasing distance from the diffuser.

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (30 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr10.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr10.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr10.gif”>

Fig. 10.

Plan views of single-quadrant computational grid for two diffusers 4.57 m apart, showing left-side diffuser location (0) and experimental data stations (1, 2, 3).

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The grid shown in Fig. 10 embodies the finest resolution that we tried for this particular problem, but it is not fine enough to remove grid errors entirely. We say this because factor-of-two refinement of cylindrical grids with comparable resolution may alter computed velocities by as much as 15%. In view of the model’s factor-of-two predictive capability, however, this level of possible grid error seems acceptable, given that a factor-of-two grid refinement demands at least a factor-of-eight increase in computer resources for three-dimensional flow simulations.Although the imposed air flow-rate (21,700 cm3/s) lies beyond the reported range of validity for Eq. (18), the latter nonetheless to specify a plume radius of 32 cm in the model input. Fig. 11 compares vertical profiles of velocity magnitude for stations 1, 2 and 3 after an elapsed time of one hour. Note that each of the experimental data represents a value that was time-averaged over a measurement interval of several minutes [26].

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (15 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr11.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr11.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr11.gif”>

Fig. 11.

Vertical profiles of velocity after one hour for two diffusers 4.57 m apart.

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The accuracy of prediction for this comparison is about the same, on average, as the previous comparisons with experiment. At stations 2 and 3 in particular, the predictions fall on either side of the data, roughly within a factor of two. The consistent underprediction of velocity along the vertical axis of symmetry at station 1, however, may be related to the model’s inability to account for plume wander with high flow-rate diffusers placed less than 5 m apart. In the absence of wander, this axis represents a line of minimum velocity with respect to neighbouring locations, and the computed magnitude increases sharply with horizontal distance from the axis. With wandering plumes, on the other hand, station 1 would no longer coincide with a fixed axis of symmetry, and the time-averaged velocities might be somewhat higher if plume gyration were included in the flow.

  1. Flow-rate scaling

In Section 5, Eq. (17), a reference velocity U0 was defined proportional to Q02/5, and it was pointed out that if U0 were indeed a scaling velocity for bubble plumes, then velocity in general should increase with the 2/5 power of the gas flow-rate. The flow-rate scaling exponent is of particular interest concerning the mixing times associated with plume-driven turbulent flow, because these may grow in inverse proportion to the liquid velocity [35].

For bubble plumes in water-filled laboratory models of metallurgical ladles, Mazumdar and Guthrie [35] report an exponent of 0.48 for flow-rates less than 500 cm3/s, and an exponent of 0.34 for higher flow-rates. In their empirical correlations for mixing times in general, however, Nakanishi et al. [38] propose an exponent of 0.4, while Asai et al. [39] propose an exponent of 0.33. Leitch and Banes [40], on the other hand, report a scaling exponent of 0.37 for velocities inside the plume itself. The exponents cited were all obtained for unbaffled containers, and their disparity suggests possible dependence on factors other than geometry. A survey of scaling relations for various configurations is given by Mazumdar and Guthrie [35].

With regard to the model proposed here, the scaling exponent is influenced by the relative magnitudes of the liquid velocity w and the bubble slip velocity w0 in Eq. (9). Note that the buoyant force that drives the flow in the plume is directly proportional to Q0 and inversely proportional to w+w0. The opposing shear force, which arises from non-uniformity in the local product of eddy viscosity and liquid strain rate, is dominated by a contribution proportional to w2 in the plume. If these forces are balanced at steady state, then the product w2(w+w0) becomes roughly proportional to Q0. Examining the limit as w0 approaches zero, one finds that w is proportional to Q01/3; but in the other limit as Q0 approaches zero, w is proportional to Q01/2. This asymptotic behaviour is qualitatively consistent with Mazumdar and Guthrie’s reported exponents of 0.48 for low flow-rates and 0.34 for high flow-rates. Whatever the case, given non-zero flow-rates and slip velocities, the scaling exponent must fall somewhere between 1/2 and 1/3.

To demonstrate the manner in which the predicted scaling exponent may vary with Q0, we used the proposed model to simulate plume-driven flow in a cylindrical container with 1 m depth and 2 m diameter. The computational grid had a uniform vertical spacing of 5 cm (20 grid spaces) and a radial spacing of 2.5 cm for the first 30 cm outward (12 grid spaces). Over the remaining 70 cm (18 grid spaces), the radial spacing was gradually increased from 2.5 to 7.9 cm. Flow simulations were executed for gas flow-rates from 1 to 1,000,000 cm3/s, with Q0 increased by a factor of 10 from one flow-rate to the next. The mean plume radius was given to the nearest grid space by Eq. (18), and the model was allowed to reach steady state for each case. Imposing the scaling relation UR∝Q0N, with UR denoting the maximum radial component of the return-flow velocity, we then extracted the value of the flow-rate scaling exponent N for each factor-of-10 increment in Q0. The results are plotted in Fig. 12, which indicates that N decreases gradually with increasing flow-rate, from a value approaching 1/2 for small Q0, to a value approaching 1/3 for large Q0. For the range of gas flow-rates (i.e., 200 to 22,000 cm3/s) considered in Section 7, the predicted exponent varies from 0.38 to 0.42, roughly approximating the proposed scaling exponent of 2/5 introduced in Eq. (17).

<img class=”figure large” border=”0″ alt=”Full-size image (4 K)” src=”http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr12.gif” data-thumbEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr12.sml” data-fullEID=”1-s2.0-S0307904X9900030X-gr12.gif”>

Fig. 12.

Predicted variation of flow-rate scaling exponent for single plume in cylindrical container with 1 m depth and 2 m diameter.

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  1. Conclusions

The drift–flux model that we have proposed for bubble plumes is similar to the cylindrical model employed by Deb Roy et al. [6], from which it differs mainly in its incorporation of a depth correction for the gas volume fraction. Owing to its simplicity, the model requires only a single additional term in the vertical (liquid) equation of motion, and it is easy to incorporate into existing single-phase CFD codes. Its utility is contingent upon neither the numerical scheme nor the turbulence model employed in the flow computation. The assumption of a fixed, empirically determined radius for the bubble column prevents the model from reproducing transient phenomena such a plume wander, and this reduces its accuracy very near the plume itself; but elsewhere the model generally reproduces observed (time-averaged) velocities within a factor of two, using as input only the gas flow-rate through the bubble source and the dimensions and geometry of the liquid container. This degree of accuracy may be inadequate for mixing calculations in the plume per se, but it is tentatively acceptable for the far-field mixing induced by single or multiple bubble columns in reservoirs.

In combination with a k–ϵ model for turbulence, the proposed model indicates that velocity increases in less-than-linear fashion with the gas flow-rate Q0. The predicted flow-rate exponent approaches 1/2 in the limit as Q0→0, and 1/3 in the limit as Q0→∞. This asymptotic behaviour is qualitatively consistent with some experiments [35], and our predicted exponent of 0.4±0.02, for flow-rates between 200–22,000 cm3/s, coincides with the median value in the range of exponents reported by others [35], [38], [39] and [40]. Since the predicted exponent depends on the relative magnitudes of the flow and slip velocities in the bubble plume, however, its value in general may vary somewhat with liquid depth and container geometry as well as flow-rate. Moreover, given the model’s factor-of-two limit in accuracy, its predictions for the flow-rate scaling exponent should be considered as rough estimates at best.

In its present form, the model is not applicable for stratified liquids in which there is a sharp density gradient between two weakly stratified layers. Our (unpublished) efforts to predict bubble-induced flow under such conditions have been unsuccessful [26], possibly because of the uniformly cylindrical model for the bubble column. Future work will investigate whether a more complex representation can be used successfully with a single-phase CFD code to compute the plume-driven flow under strongly stratified conditions.

 

To conclude all gases inside a bubble there can only be the center and the exit of the same amount of gas.  There has to be the same volume of enter and exit.

 

Thank-You

 

Alvin L. Davis

 

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TEACHING ENGLISH IS FUN!!!!!! see this new school!!!!!

Photo: Idiom of the day :</p>
<p>Cook the books<br />
To record false information in the accounts of an organization, especially in order to steal money (usually in continuous tenses) 1.One of the directors had been cooking the books and the firm had been losing money for years.” width=”329″ height=”504″ /></p>
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Facebook: Alvin Lester Davis      come and follow meeeeeeeeeeee

 

Photo: One thing in common (English)

 

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Photo: Idiom of the day :</p>
<p>One’s eyes are bigger than one’s stomach<br />
One has taken more food than one can eat.<br />
1.I can’t eat all this. I’m afraid that my eyes were bigger than my stomach.<br />
2.Try to take less food. Your eyes are bigger than your stomach at every meal.” width=”485″ height=”343″ /></p>
<p> </p>
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Facebook: Alvin Lester Davis THE “ENGLISH TEACHER” !!!!!

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Facebook: Alvin Lester Davis

 

 

Photo: Idiom of the day :</p>
<p>Way to go<br />
a phrase encouraging someone to continue the good work.<br />
1. As John ran over the finish line, everyone cried, "That’s the way to go!" "Way to go!" said Mary when Bob finally got the car started.” width=”401″ height=”469″ /></p>
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“NEW” 2014 Hydrogen CARS!!! buy and get rid of oil “CARS”

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Hydrogen will replace “OIL” car’s soon for 1000 reason’s

Hindenburg’s liberal valving of hydrogen to maintain level trim required the addition of about 20% fresh hydrogen every seven to ten days, which increased operational expenses, but had the benefit of maintaining the ship’s lifting gas at a high level of purity.

Maintaining a high level of purity (in other words, avoiding contamination of hydrogen by air) was an important safety feature in dealing with the flammable gas; pure hydrogen is difficult to ignite, but hydrogen mixed with air is highly volatile, so the purity of the gas was closely monitored.

Fantastic website!
I would appreciate info on how H2 was generated in large quantities (chemically? electrically?), how it was stored, how the gas bladders were made impermeable, how much the zepellins leaked H2, how they measured purity, what was the cost of replenishing, etc. etc. etc.
Thanks for a great read!!!!

 

I earlier commented that the Graf must have refilled with H2 during its around-the-world flight, but I forgot that because it used Blau Gas instead of Diesel fuel, there was little change in weight in flight since Blau Gas is almost the same density as air. So, no refills needed.

 

I beleive the Graf also carried liquid fuel in addition to the Blau gas. The Graf’s engines ran on that gas and gasoline or petrol, not diesel like the Hindenburg’s engines did. The Graf carried on one flight (No 366) from Germany to Pernambuco gasoline for 20 hours of powered flight which weighed 8040 kg. The remaining fuel was 19,000 cbm of Blau gas, with a minimal weight, that provided the Graf’s engines about 76 hours of powered flight.

 

Having worked with hydrogen at AirResearch in Phoenix durng a study of hypersonic
flight with supersonic combustion ramjets (Scramjets) I was suprised to learn that
the crash and burning of the Hindenburg misled many observers of the photos taken
to believe that the burning was highly visible. Actually it was invisible to the human
eye but visible in movies because of the broader spectrum capability of movie film.

Take my word, for it, the flame was very visible to the human eye! I was standing at the street corner near the Administration building with my parents- I was 9 years old. We watched it explode, the flames and debris went way up and then appeared to come down on top of us. My Mom and I ran down the street a ways but the embers went out before reaching us. I realize that H2 burns with an invisible flame, but it had to burn through the gas bags so the smoldering fabric contributed color to the flame – mostly white as I recall, not yellow as some pictures have been colorized. I have a Hindenburg PowerPoint show on my website -”Remembering the Hindenburg”.

 

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Jane Toppan killed “DAVIS” Family in 1901

 

 

 

Jane Toppan (1880-1901) was a 26-year old nurse from Boston, Massachusetts who gave lethal injections of morphine to 31 hospital patients, and was suspected of having killed an additional 70 patients over the course of a two-decade career. When apprehended, she said she wanted to kill more people than anyone who has ever lived before, but could only provide details to solve 31 crimes. Her history of suicide attempts helped her win an insanity plea, and she was eventually confined to a state mental hospital for 40 years until she died in custody.

 


Jane TOPPAN

They call nurses “Angels of Mercy” — and to all appearances, Jane Toppan fit the bill. Beside her obvious competence, she seemed to be sensitive, sympathetic woman who had worked for some of Boston’s best families.

Of course, none of her employers knew anything about our hero’s early years…

They did not know of her mother’s tragic death when Janie was just a wee lass — or of her father’s subsequent insanity, which impelled him to stitch his own eyelids together. They weren’t aware of Jane’s own suicide attempts, or the morbid obsessions she displayed during her nursing years at Cambridge, where her bizarre fascination with autopsies troubled even her supervisors.

It wasn’t until members of the Davis family began dropping like insects in 1901 that the terrible truth about Jane came out. Far from being an “Angel”, she was, indeed, one of America’s most twisted serial killers.

Mrs. Mattie Davis was the first to go, presumably of heart failure. She died while visiting her old friend, Jane Toppan. The elder Davis daughter, Annie Gordon, was so distraught she turned to Toppan for relief. Nurse Toppan obliged by giving her some injec- tions. Shortly thereafter, Annie followed her mom straight into the grave.

A few days later, the Davis patriarch, Captain Alden Davis, was felled — supposedly by a “massive stroke”. He, too, had been receiving medication from Toppan. That left just one surviving member of the family, a married daughter — Mary Gibbs. Several days after her father’s burial — after placing herself under the care of our Nurse Gibbs — Mary dropped dead, too…

With his wife’s entire family wiped out in less than six weeks, Mary Gibbs’ husband demanded an autopsy. Toppan did her best to prevent it, but the Mass. State Police, suspecting foul play, stepped in. The autopsy confirmed Mr. Gibbs’ dark fears; His wife had been massively posioned with morphine and atropine. By then, Toppan had fled Boston.

She was eventually nabbed in Amherst, NH, October, 1901, but not before she managed to kill her own foster sister. She finally confessed to poisoning not only the Davis clan, but eleven other victims as well. Later, she would tell her lawyer that the true total was thirty-one.Declared insane, she was confined to a state tardfarm, where she died peacefully in1938 at the ripe old age of eighty-four.

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“The EPA is a toxic waste dump for lawlessness and disdain for the Constitution.”

67363-prism6“The EPA is a toxic waste dump for lawlessness and disdain for the Constitution.” Just last week, Mark Levin and his vigilant Landmark Legal Foundation went to court to ask federal district judge Royce Lamberth to sanction the EPA “for destroying or failing to preserve emails and text messages that may have helped document suspected agency efforts to influence the 2012 presidential election.” The motion is part of a larger Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit to force EPA to release emails and related records from former EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson and others “who may have delayed the release dates for hot-button environmental regulations until after the Nov. 6, 2012, presidential election.” “These entities propagate the false notion that they are independent citizen-funded groups working altruistically. In reality, they work in tandem with wealthy donors to maximize the value of the donors’ tax-deductible donations and leverage their combined resources to influence elections…” – Mark Levin Thanks to Levin and Landmark, Jackson and other EPA officials admitted in depositions that they used personal, nongovernmental email accounts to hide communications about official EPA business sent and received on their government-issued BlackBerries and smart phones. The agency has continued to drag its feet for two years in response to Landmark’s FOIA requests. Levin minced no words: “The EPA is a toxic waste dump for lawlessness and disdain for the Constitution.” Not to mention disdain for the public’s right to know. As Levin added: “When any federal agency receives a FOIA request, the statute says it must preserve every significant repository of records, both paper and electronic, that may contain materials that could be responsive to that request.” The agency is legally obliged to notify all involved in the suit to preserve everything in their possession that could be discoverable in the litigation. But the feds have bent over backward to delay and deny. “(T)he people at the EPA, from the administrator on down, think they’re above the law, that no one has the right to question what or how they do their jobs,” Levin blasted. “Well, they’re wrong. The laws apply to everyone, even federal bureaucrats.”

HI STUDENT’S I WILL NEVER FORGET YOU AND YOUR HARD WORK I MISS ALL OF YOU VERY, VERY, VERY, MUCH

Teachers can make a class“FUN” never say the same thing to students, never always say good morning, maybe if it is after lunch to see if the h…ear you!!! Haaha and they turn and say “NO” teacher it is afternoon. Always change your teaching ways. Never be the same.

IT IS NOT WHAT I TEACH YOU TODAY

IT IS WHAT YOU REMEMBER TOMMORROW!!!!

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“YOU WANT TO TALK GOOD “ENGLISH” CHECK ME OUT

Teachers can make a class “FUN” never say the same thing to students, never always say good morning, maybe if it is after lunch to see if the hear you!!! Haaha and they turn and say “NO” teacher it is afternoon. Always change your teaching ways. Never be the same.

IT IS NOT WHAT I TEACH YOU TODAY

IT IS WHAT YOU REMEMBER TOMMORROW!!!!

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Basic English lessons to advanced Leave a comment

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Alvin Lester Davis
West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience
· Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

  • In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.

Experience
CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher
· Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

  • As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students

Shane English School – Dongying, China

January 2008 to September 2009

English Teacher
· Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

  • Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
  • Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA

Novartis– Emeryville, CA

2006 to 2008
Master Mechanic

  • Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.

VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA

2005 to 2006

H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR

  • Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.

COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP

Boeing / L3
2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer
· Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

  • Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
  • Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea

Yamas Controls
2001 to 2002
Chiller Specialist
· Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

  • Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
  • Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
  • Left Company to go overseas.

Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

1996 to 2000

Supervisor/H&C Maintenance

  • King Khalid International Airport Project
  • Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
  • Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
  • Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
  • Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.

Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. –Shreveport, LA

1993 to 1996
Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

  • Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F).
    American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993
Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

  • Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.

Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA

1983 to 1991
Stationary Engineer
· Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

  • Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.

Education/ Qualification and Training

Oklahoma State University –Stillwater, OK

B.A. – Facilities Engineering
Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University

Boiler Seminar
Military
Secret Clearance
Special Skills
Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.

http://tokyo.craigslist.jp/edu/4584579540.html

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“ALVIN DAVIS” for President of the United States of America VOTE” for “ME”

2. Test the Water: Pre-Candidacy Process
Testing the water: pre-candidacy process

“Serious candidates for president must begin preparing for the election years in advance. The first decision potential candidates and their families face is whether or not they are suited for the demands of the office and willing to make the personal sacrifices necessary to win the election. The next step usually involves forming political action committees to broaden a candidate’s visibility, to test the candidate’s appeal nationwide, and to raise money for increasingly expensive campaigns. Candidates also establish exploratory committees whose job it is to 1) seriously consider the candidate’s chances of becoming president, 2) suggest possible campaigns themes and slogans, 3) write speeches and position papers, 4) seek endorsements from powerful individuals and groups, 5) recruit professional and volunteer staff, 6) begin organizing state campaigns in key states, 7) hire pollsters and consultants, and 8) develop media appeals.”

Thomas S. Vontz and William A. Nixon, “Teaching About Presidential Elections,” Indiana University at Bloomington, Center for Social Studies and International Education website, Aug. 2000

I will stand on the issues, and respond to people with question’s.  There is a time when it is needed to shake up America, and Now it will be me!

Am I suited? Who can be true to them self to say they are suited?  It is a HARD job! but I have worked with so many problem of not only life but in Management and how to get something done to inprove things.

Political Action Committees?  No need, the people need to be able to ask any question directly to the president.

Candidates’s Chances?  If I let business tell me what to do then what about the workers? they have no voice?

Write speeches? Talk from the heart not from a writer.

Hire pollster and consultants? did Lincon have this?

 

 

eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

alvindavis99.wordpress.com

alvinlesterdavis.wordpress.com

Alvin Lester Davis

West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com

Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience

· Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

· In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.
Experience

CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com

January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher

· Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

· As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students
Shane English School – Dongying, China
January 2008 to September 2009
English Teacher

· Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

· Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
· Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA
Novartis– Emeryville, CA
2006 to 2008

Master Mechanic

· Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.
VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA
2005 to 2006
H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR
· Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.
COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP
Boeing / L3

2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer

· Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

· Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
· Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea
Yamas Controls

2001 to 2002

Chiller Specialist

· Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

· Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
· Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
· Left Company to go overseas.
Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1996 to 2000
Supervisor/H&C Maintenance
· King Khalid International Airport Project
· Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
· Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
· Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
· Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.
Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. – Shreveport, LA
1993 to 1996

Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

· Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F).

American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993

Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

· Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.
Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA
1983 to 1991

Stationary Engineer

· Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

· Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.
Education/ Qualification and Training
Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK
B.A. – Facilities Engineering

Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University
Boiler Seminar

Military

Secret Clearance

Special Skills

Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.

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“ALVIN DAVIS” as the new President of the United States of America

1. Meet Eligibility Guidelines Set by the US Constitution

Article II of the United States Constitution establishes the Executive Branch of the Government, including the President, Vice-President, and other executive officers. Within Article II, rules are set as to who can become President and how a President is elected:

Article II

Section 1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

…No person except anatural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time ofthe adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age ofthirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States.”

United States Constitution, Sep. 17, 1787

#01:   New Party: The Mixed Party
#02:  Why: because USA is not UNITED
#03:  Education: is worse and going to the bottom of the world
#04:  Health Plans
#05:  Change in the way we thing as American’s
#06:  Tax’s
#07:  State Laws
 
Ok this is just the first draft, but I will throw my hat in the RING” 100% we need a new “Party” the two old party’s can not get anything done. if I am President I will not belong to any of the DEM’s or the REP’s this is to say I will judge each issue out side of the standard’s that each party is bound and bent on making only for there “PARTY’S” I will not be scared to say “NO”
Every congress person must “VOTE” on each and every issue in “PERSON” that is there “JOB”
 
 
 
 
 

eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

alvindavis99.wordpress.com

alvinlesterdavis.wordpress.com

Alvin Lester Davis

West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com

Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience

· Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

· In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.

Experience

CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com

January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher

· Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

· As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students
Shane English School – Dongying, China
January 2008 to September 2009

English Teacher

· Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

· Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
· Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA
Novartis– Emeryville, CA

2006 to 2008

Master Mechanic

· Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.
VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA
2005 to 2006
H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR
· Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.
COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP

Boeing / L3

2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer

· Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

· Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
· Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea

Yamas Controls

2001 to 2002

Chiller Specialist

· Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

· Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
· Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
· Left Company to go overseas.
Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1996 to 2000
Supervisor/H&C Maintenance
· King Khalid International Airport Project
· Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
· Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
· Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
· Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.
Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. – Shreveport, LA

1993 to 1996

Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

· Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F).

American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993

Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

· Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.
Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA

1983 to 1991

Stationary Engineer

· Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

· Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.
Education/ Qualification and Training
Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK

B.A. – Facilities Engineering

Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University

Boiler Seminar

Military

Secret Clearance

Special Skills

Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.
Leave a comment »

OK “READY TO LEARN MORE ENGLISH???” read these………..hehehehehe

 

 

eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

alvindavis99.wordpress.com

alvinlesterdavis.wordpress.com

Alvin Lester Davis

West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com

Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience

· Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

· In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.
Experience

CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com

January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher

· Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

· As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students
Shane English School – Dongying, China
January 2008 to September 2009
English Teacher

· Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

· Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
· Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA
Novartis– Emeryville, CA
2006 to 2008

Master Mechanic

· Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.
VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA
2005 to 2006
H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR
· Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.
COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP
Boeing / L3

2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer

· Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

· Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
· Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea
Yamas Controls

2001 to 2002

Chiller Specialist

· Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

· Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
· Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
· Left Company to go overseas.
Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1996 to 2000
Supervisor/H&C Maintenance
· King Khalid International Airport Project
· Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
· Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
· Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
· Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.
Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. – Shreveport, LA
1993 to 1996

Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

· Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F).

American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993

Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

· Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.
Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA
1983 to 1991

Stationary Engineer

· Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

· Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.
Education/ Qualification and Training
Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK
B.A. – Facilities Engineering

Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University
Boiler Seminar

Military

Secret Clearance

Special Skills

Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.

 

 

2 Comments »

“DO YOU WANT TO LEARN ENGLISH???” contact me!!!!!

eslschoolforenglish.wordpress.com

alvindavis99.wordpress.com

alvinlesterdavis.wordpress.com

Alvin Lester Davis

West Fork, AR / 479-839-3126 or 501-242-2000 / alvindavis99@gmail.com

Stationary Engineer/English Teacher

Summary of Experience

· Supervising mechanics on Central Plant equipment and Boiler Rooms for Industrial Plant, Hospitals and Airports.

· In excess of 15 years with civilian and mechanical engineering equipment concerned with the maintenance and repairs of wide range of equipment in boiler rooms operation and maintenance such as four (4) units of oil fired high temperature water boilers with a capacity of 45,000,000 BTU/hr. per unit and four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units with a capacity of 5000 tons per unit, Water and Waste Treatment Plants, Utilities Supports, and D.I. system for a Pharmaceutical Company.
Experience

CIP School in Angeles City www.cipschool.com

January 2009 to October 2013

Teacher

· Teaching Korean and Japanese student all English subjects

· As of May 2011 took over as Head Teacher of 58 Teachers and 80 Students
Shane English School – Dongying, China
January 2008 to September 2009
English Teacher

· Taught 5yr to 15yr old Chinese children with a class size of 8 to 32 equaling 200 students a week.

· Taught Basic English to advanced English in a night class of 20yr to 40yr people
· Skill’s Interviews, passing SAT for enrollment for the USA
Novartis– Emeryville, CA
2006 to 2008

Master Mechanic

· Served as Master Mechanic for 22 Buildings with Pharm Equipment, such as: Boilers, Chillers, Sterilizers and performed P.M’s Corrective Maintenance.
VERIZON DATA BASE – Sacramento, CA
2005 to 2006
H.V.A.C. TECH / SUPERVISOR
· Responsibilities included: Chillers, Boilers, H.V.A.C. System in the Building. P.M.’s Corrective Maintenance On all Building System’s, including but not limited to VAV, Air-Handlers, Cooling Towers, Helping the Electricians on there Craft as well.
COMPUTER SCIENCES CORP – (EUSA CH-47 FLIGHT SIMULATOR UNIT 15367 APO) / South Korea, AP
Boeing / L3

2002 to 2005

Stationary Engineer / HVAC Engineer

· Repair of Chillers, Boilers, working with Building Control Systems.

· Teaching English and Engineering A.C.T. to 20,166 Collage Students
· Supervising HVAC tech’s for all Army Bases in South Korea
Yamas Controls

2001 to 2002

Chiller Specialist

· Working with Company’s such as Genentech, Highland Hospital, Our Lady of Holy Angels.

· Responsibilities: Repair of Chillers, Boilers, Air-Handling Units, Controls
· Equipment: Trane, Clever-Brooks, Westinghouse, Carrier, Copeland.
· Left Company to go overseas.
Saudi Oger Ltd – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1996 to 2000
Supervisor/H&C Maintenance
· King Khalid International Airport Project
· Utilities Division, Heating & Cooling Section
· Supervising Maintenance personnel of Central Plant Heating & Cooling Section composed of Foremen, Lead Mechanics, Mechanics, HVAC Personnel, I&C Technicians, and Plant Electricians.
· Responsibilities: include plant machinery’s e.g. four (4) Centrifugal Refrigeration Units, each with a capacity of producing 5000 tons per hour of chilled water, four (4) diesel fuel oil fired high temperature water boilers, each with a capacity of producing 45,000,000 BTU per hour with an output temperature of 204OC, six (6) cooling towers and fans, CHW & HTW piping equaling a total length of 12.8 Kilometers. In addition, submitting daily, weekly and monthly reports to the Superintendent and Project Manager.
· Maintenance Duty Officer: On many occasions assumed the duties and responsibilities for all contractual decisions and work co-ordinations at the KKIA Airport during night shifts and weekends.
Boot’s Pharmaceutical Co. – Shreveport, LA
1993 to 1996

Chief Stationary Engineer of Central Plant

· Responsibilities: included (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, (4) 250 PSI water tube steam Ryans D.I. Water system, 4 Culligan water softeners. Also responsibilities submit time sheets, scheduling of shifts, man-hour reports, monthly reports, weekly reports, chemical reports. Compressors, Super Cooled Systems, Automatic Controls for Boilers & Chillers, Barbare / Colman, Blue Prints, P.I.D. Fiber Optic Systems. February 1996 went to Saudi Arabia (company was sold to B.A.S.F).

American Towers – Shreveport, LA

1991 to 1993

Chief Stationary Engineer for 16 Stories Office Building

· Responsibilities included to supervise (6) Stationary Engineers, (2) Cleverbrook’s Steam Boilers, Maintenance and Repair, Operations, Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance, Budgeting for $1,000,000 a year Maintenance & Operation.
Schumpert Hospital – Shreveport, LA
1983 to 1991

Stationary Engineer

· Operations& Maintenance of Steam System, included autoclaves, boilers, 150,000 LB steam per hour, water softeners, (4) 1000 tons Trane Centrifugal Units, Cooling Towers, Pumps, Compressors, D.A. tank operations & maintenance heat exchanger units, emergency systems. Mogal water treatment daily assessment.

· Babcox& Wilcox steam boilers with 26 Turbine Generators.
Education/ Qualification and Training
Oklahoma State University – Stillwater, OK
B.A. – Facilities Engineering

Associates Degree – Fiber Optic / Solar Design/ Engineering / BAMS

A/C School – Oklahoma State University
Boiler Seminar

Military

Secret Clearance

Special Skills

Memory Logic, Reading & Interpretation Blue Prints, Problem Solving, Electronic Technology

Personal Profile: An experienced Heating & Cooling Engineer having substantial professional expertise in installing, Commissioning, Maintenance and Operations of most types of Heating and Cooling Systems which include hot and cold water supplies Steam, Chilled Water, High Temperature Water, Gas Supplies, Oil Supplies, Heat Recovery, High Purity Water Systems, Chemical Injection System, OSHA standards, MMS System, LIS System, P.M.’s, C.M.’s, Preventive Maintenance, Planning and completing projects. D.I. Water Systems.
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TIME for EASY ENGLISH (TRY IT)

67363-prism6Idiom of the day :
What’s Up?Definition
What are you doing?; what is happening?
How are you?; how are you feeling?
What’s the matter?
A casual greeting with a meaning similar to how are you? or nice to meet you.

Photo: Idiom of the day :<br /><br />
What’s Up?</p><br />
<p>Definition<br /><br />
What are you doing?; what is happening?<br /><br />
How are you?; how are you feeling?<br /><br />
What’s the matter?<br /><br />
A casual greeting with a meaning similar to how are you? or nice to meet you.” width=”170″ height=”170″ /></div>
</div>
<p> </p>
<p>Ielts Vocabulary Time:</p>
<p>ABHOR<br />
Definition<br />
(v.) to hate, detest<br />
Because he always wound up getting hit in the head when he tried to play Dodge ball, Steve began to abhor the sport.</p>
<p> </p>
<p><img class=

Photo

 

Photo: Always be prepared

Always be prepared. What is another word for prepared? anyone?______________________________

 

Idiom of the day:
Think outside the box
To think freely, not bound by old, nonfunctional, or limiting structures, rules, or practices. (As if thinking or creativity were confined in or limited by a figurative box. Compare this with think inside the box.)
You won’t come up with good ideas until you think outside the box. Let’s think outside the box for a minute and try to find a better solution.
Photo: Idiom of the day:<br /><br />
Think outside the box<br /><br />
To think freely, not bound by old, nonfunctional, or limiting structures, rules, or practices. (As if thinking or creativity were confined in or limited by a figurative box. Compare this with think inside the box.)<br /><br />
You won’t come up with good ideas until you think outside the box. Let’s think outside the box for a minute and try to find a better solution.” width=”271″ height=”186″ /></div>
</div>
<p> </p>
<p><img class=

 

Photo: Parts of a Car

Photo: Vocabulary Time

Idiom of the day:
Sick as a dog
Very sick; sick and vomiting. (*Also: as ~.) We’ve never been so ill. The whole family was sick as dogs. Sally was as sick as a dog and couldn’t go to the party.

The Natives are online

Idiom of the day:
Wake up on the wrong side of the bed

To feel grumpy, irritable; to be easily annoyed.
He can’t stop shouting at me: he must have woken up on the wrong side of the bed this morning.

 

Idiom of the day:
Race against the clock
in sport, if people race against the clock, they try to race faster than a particular time instead of racing against other people

 

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“SEE” you can “LEARN” english very fast and “EASY”

 

 

 

The Natives are online's photo.The Natives are online's photo.

 

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Amazing … Hats-off to Engineer …

 

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Pronunciation is here……is here………..is here

Pronunciation

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
“Pronounced” redirects here. For the Lynyrd Skynyrd album commonly referred to as “Pronounced”, see (Pronounced ‘Lĕh-‘nérd ‘Skin-‘nérd).
For pronunciation on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation.

Pronunciation is the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have “correct pronunciation”, then it refers to both within a particular dialect.

A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: the duration of the cultural exposure of their childhood, the location of their current residence, speech or voice disorders,[1] their ethnic group, their social class, or their education.[2]

1. Nose; 2. Lips; 3. Teeth; 4. Palate; 5.

 

 

Linguistic terminology[edit]

Syllables are counted as units of sound (phones) that they use in their language. The branch of linguistics which studies these units of sound is phonetics. Phones which play the same role are grouped together into classes called phonemes; the study of these is phonemics or phonematics or phonology. Phones as components of articulation are usually described using the International Phonetic Alphabet

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soooooo cute ENGLISH words “CUTE”

8k05brzDgFOlyytEa9_Ky2bKGg9c_SJYmSF5EWjx
cute
kyo͞ot/
adjective
adjective: cute; comparative adjective: cuter; superlative adjective: cutest
  1. 1.
    attractive in a pretty or endearing way.
    “a cute kitten”
  2. 2.
    North Americaninformal
    clever or cunning, especially in a self-seeking or superficial way.
    “I don’t want to be cute with you”
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“ENGLISH” IS nooot that hard to learn !!!! just try my things

Photo: Grammar TimePhoto

Photo: Pay attention !

Photo: Reflexive Pronouns

 

Photo: Telephone Phrasal Verbs